Buku Kimia Kesehatan Kelas 12 SMK

Buku Kimia Kesehatan Kelas 12 SMK


Kelas 12
Pengarang Zulfikar
Penerbit Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan Kementerian Pendidikan Nasional
Tahun 2008
Bagikan kepada teman anda.

Materi Kimia Kesehatan

Kata pengantar...................................................................................i
Alur fikir isi buku.................................................................................ii
Daftar Isi ............................................................................................iii

Bab 1. Ruang Lingkup Ilmu Kimia ...........................................................
1. Ilmu Kimia ............................................................................................. 1
2. Materi dan wujudnya ........................................................................... 1
3. Sifat Materi ........................................................................................... 3
4. Perubahan Materi ................................................................................. 4
5. Energi menyertai Perubahan Kimia ..................................................... 5
6. Klasifikasi Materi .................................................................................. 6
7. Peran Ilmu Kimia .................................................................................. 9
Rangkuman ........................................................................................ 11
Uji Kompetensi .................................................................................... 12

Bab 2. Unsur dan Senyawa ....................................................................
2.1. Unsur.............................................................................................. 14
2.1.1 Nama unsur ....................................................................... 15
2.1.2. Lambang unsur ................................................................. 15
2.1.3. Unsur di alam .................................................................... 16
2.1.4. Atom ................................................................................. 18
2.1.5. Ion ..................................................................................... 19
2.2. Senyawa ......................................................................................... 19
2.2.1. Senyawa di alam ................................................................. 19
2.2.2. Molekul............................................................................... 22
2.2.3. Komposisi senyawa ............................................................ 23
2.2.4. Rumus Kimia ....................................................................... 24
2.3. Persamaan reaksi ......................................................................... 26
2.3.1. Penyetaraan reaksi ............................................................. 27
Rangkuman .................................................................................... 29
Uji Kompetensi .............................................................................. 31

Bab.3. Atom dan Molekul ......................................................................
3.1. Atom ............................................................................................. 33
3.1.1. Atom dan lambang atom .................................................... 33
3.1.2. Perkembangan teori atom .................................................. 36
3.1.3. Konfigurasi Elektron ............................................................ 42
Rangkuman ....................................................................................... 46
Uji Kompetensi ................................................................................ 50

Bab 4 Tabel Periodik ..............................................................................
4.1. Tabel Periodik ............................................................................... 52
4.1.1. Sifat unsur merupakan fungsi masa atom .......................... 52
4.1.2. Tabel periodik panjang........................................................ 53
4.1.2.1 Jalur horizontal................................................................. 53
4.1.2.1 Jalur vertikal ..................................................................... 52
4.2. Hubungan table periodic dengan konfigurasi elektron ............... 56
4.2.1. Elektron valensi ................................ ................................ ... 56
4.2.2. Jari-jari atom ....................................................................... 56
4.2.3. Energi ionisasi ..................................................................... 57
4.2.4. Afinitas elektron ................................ ................................ .. 58
Rangkuman .......................................................................................... 59
UjiKompetensi ..................................................................................... 61

Bab 5 Ikatan Kimia ................................................................................
5.1. Ikatan Kimia ..................................................................................... 62
5.1.1. Ikatan ion ............................................................................ 63
5.1.2. Ikatan Kovalen ..................................................................... 65
5.1.3. Hibridisasi dan bentuk molekul ........................................... 69
5.1.4. Interaksi atom ..................................................................... 71
5.1.4.1. Ikatan Logam ............................................................. 71
5.1.5. Gaya tarik menarik antar molekul ...................................... 74
5.1.6. Ikatan Hidrogen ................................................................... 75
Rangkuman .......................................................................................... 77
Uji Kompetensi .................................................................................... 80

Bab 6 Stoikiometri .................................................................................
6.1. Tata nama senyawa sederhana ...................................................... 81
6.1.1. Penamaan senyawa biner ................................................... 81
6.1.2. Penamaan senyawa ion....................................................... 83
6.1.3. Penamaan senyawa terner ................................................. 84
6.2. Hukum Dasar Kimia ........................................................................ 85
6.2.1. Hukum kekekalan massa ..................................................... 85
6.2.2. Hukum perbandingan tetap ................................................ 86
6.2.3. Hukum perbandingan berganda ......................................... 87
6.2.4. Hukum perbandingan volume ............................................. 87
6.2.5. Penemtuan volume gas pereaksi dan hasil reaksi .............. 88
6.3. Atomic relative (Ar) dan Molecule relative (Mr) ............................ 90
6.4. Konsep mol ..................................................................................... 91
6.5. Hubungan persamaan reaksi dan mol zat ...................................... 92
6.6. Hitungan kimia ................................................................................ 92
6.7. Perhitungan komposisi zat ............................................................. 95
Rangkuman ..................................................................................... 97
Uji Komptensi ................................................................................. 99

Bab 7 Reaksi Kimia .................................................................................
7.1. Reaksi kimia................................................................................. 101
7.2. Jenis reaksi kimia ......................................................................... 102
7.2.1. Reaksi pembentukan .................................................. 102
7.2.2. Reaksi penguraian ...................................................... 102
7.2.3. Reaksi pengendapan .................................................. 103
7.2.4. Reaksi pertukaran ....................................................... 103
7.2.5. Reaksi netralisasi ........................................................ 104
7.2.6. Reaksi pembakaran .................................................... 104
7.3. Reaksi oksidasi dan reduksi ......................................................... 104
7.4. Bilangan oksidasi ......................................................................... 105
7.5. Bilangan oksidasi pada senyawa ion ........................................... 106
7.6. Menyetarakan reaksi redoks....................................................... 107
7.6.1. Cara ion elektron ........................................................ 108
7.6.2. Cara bilangan oksidasi ................................................ 110
7.7. Sel elektrokimia ........................................................................... 113
7.7.1. Sel volta ................................ ................................ ...... 11 4
7.7.2. Sel Elektrolisa ............................................................. 115
7.8. Hukum Faraday ........................................................................... 117
7.9. Sel elektrokimia komersial .......................................................... 118
7.9.1. Sel volta komersial...................................................... 118
7.9.2. Sel elektrolisa dalam industri ..................................... 119
7.10. Korosi .......................................................................................... 120
Rangkuman ................................................................................... 122
Uji Kompetensi ............................................................................ 124

Bab 8 Larutan .......................................................................................
8.1. Larutan ...................................................................................... 128
8.1.1. Larutan elektrolit dan elektrolit .......................................... 129
8.1.2. Derajat ionisasi .................................................................... 129
8.2. Konsentrasi Larutan ..................................................................... 131
8.2.1. Persen berat ........................................................................ 131
8.2.2. Persen volume .................................................................... 132
8.2.3. Fraksi mol ............................................................................ 132
8.2.4. Molalitas ............................................................................. 133
8.2.5. Molaritas ............................................................................. 133
8.2.6. Normalitas ........................................................................... 133
8.3. Pengenceran ................................................................................ 134
8.4. Sifat Larutan ................................................................................. 135
8.4.1. Asam dan basa .................................................................... 135
8.4.2. Pembentukan asam dan basa ............................................. 137
8.4.3. Derajat keasaman dan kebasaan ........................................ 139
8.4.4. Kesetimbangan air .............................................................. 141
8.5. Garam .......................................................................................... 142
8.5.1. Reaksi antara asam dengan basa ........................................ 143
8.5.2. Asam dengan oksida basa ................................................... 143
8.5.3. Basa dengan oksida asam ................................................... 143
8.5.4. Logam dengan asam ........................................................... 144
8.5.5. Reaksi metatesis ................................................................. 144
8.6. Hidrolisis Garam .......................................................................... 145
8.6.1. Garam yang berasal dari asam kuat basa kuat ................... 145
8.6.2. Garam yang berasal dari asam kuat basa lemah ................ 146
8.6.3. Garam yang berasal dari asam lemah basa kuat ................ 146
8.6.4. Garam yang berasal dari asam lemah basa lemah ............ 147
8.7. Larutan penyangga atau buffer .................................................. 147
8.7.1. Garam dengan asam lemahnya .......................................... 148
8.7.2. Garam dengan basa lemahnya ........................................... 148
Rangkuman ..................................................................................... 151
Uji kompetensi bagian asam .......................................................... 155
Uji kompetensi bagian garam ........................................................ 157

Bab 9 Kesetimbangan Kimia ................................................................
9.1. Kesetimbangan ............................................................................. 159
9.1.1. Sistem tertutup........................................................... 160
9.1.2. Kesetimbangan dinamis ............................................. 160
9.1.3. Jenis reaksi kesetimbangan ........................................ 161
9.2. Tetapan Kesetimbangan ............................................................... 162  
9.3. Pergeseran Kesetimbangan ................................ .......................... 1 64
9.3.1. Pengaruh konsentrasi ................................................. 164
9.3.2. Pengaruh suhu ............................................................ 164
9.3.3. Pengaruh volume dan tekanan .................................. 165
9.3.4. Katalisator................................................................... 166
9.4. Disosiasi ........................................................................................ 167
9.5. Aplikasi kesetimbangan dalam industri ........................................ 167
9.6. Kesetimbangan larutan ................................................................. 168
Rangkuman ..................................................................................... 170
Uji kompetensi ............................................................................... 171

Bab 10 Kecepatan reaksi dan energi ....................................................
10.1. Kecepatan reaksi ..................................................................... 175
10.2. Tahap reaksi ............................................................................ 177
10.3. Tingkat reaksi........................................................................... 178
10.4. Faktor-faktor kecepatan reaksi ............................................... 179
10.4.1. Luas permukaan ........................................................ 180
10.4.2. Konsentrasi ............................................................... 180
10.4.3. Suhu .......................................................................... 180
10.4.4. Katalisator ................................................................. 181
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 183
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 184
10.5. Energi .................................................................................... 187
10.5.1. Termokimia ............................................................... 187
10.5.2. Hukum-hukum dalam termokimia ........................... 188
10.5.3. ? H pembentukan ...................................................... 190
10.5.4. ? H penguraian .......................................................... 190
10.5.5. ? H pembakaran ........................................................ 191
10.5.6. ? H pelarutan ............................................................. 191
10.6. Energi ikatan ............................................................................ 192
10.7. Kalor pembakaran berbagai bahan bakar ............................... 193
10.7.1. Komposisi Minyak bumi ............................................ 193
10.7.2. Bahan bakar hasil pengolahan minyak bumi ............ 194
10.7.3. Kalor pembakaran bahan bakar................................ 195
10.8. Termodinamika ....................................................................... 196
10.8.1. Hukum kedua termodinamika .................................. 197
10.8.2. Entropi ...................................................................... 197
10.8.3. Hukum ketiga termodinamika .................................. 198

Rangkuman ............................................................................... 200
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 203

Bab 11 Sifat Koligatif dan Koloid ................................ .........................
11.1 Sifat Koligatif Larutan ................................................................ 206
11.1.1 Penurunan Tekanan uap jenuh ...................................... 206
11.1.2 Jumlah partikel elektrolit dan non elektrolit .................. 208
11.1.3 Kenaikan titik didih ......................................................... 208
11.1.4 Penurunan titik beku ...................................................... 210
11.2 Tekanan Osmotik ...................................................................... 211
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 212
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 213
11.3 Sistem Dispersi .......................................................................... 215  
11.3.1 Macam - macam Koloid ................................ ................... 2 15
11.3.2 Pembuatan Koloid .......................................................... 218
11.3.3 Pemisahan Koloid ........................................................... 219
Rangkuman................................................................................ 220
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 222

Bab 12 Senyawa Hidrokarbon .............................................................
12.1. Kekhasan atom karbon ............................................................. 224
12.2. Senyawa hidrokarbon ............................................................... 225
12.2.1 Isomer ............................................................................ 226
12.3. Alkana ...................................................................................... 227
12.3.1 Penamaan alkana ........................................................... 228
12.4. Alkena ........................................................................................ 229
12.4.1 Penamaan alkena ........................................................... 230
12.4.2. Stereoisomer alkena ..................................................... 230
12.5. Alkuna ........................................................................................ 234
12.5.1 Tata nama alkuna ........................................................... 234
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 238
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 240
12.6. Alkanon ...................................................................................... 244
12.6.1 Tata nama alkanon ........................................................ 244
12.6.2. Beberapa senyawa alkanon penting ............................. 244
12.6.3. Sifat fisika alkanon ........................................................ 245
12.6.4. Sifat kimia alkanon ........................................................ 245
12.7. Alkanal ....................................................................................... 245
12.7.1. Tata nama aldehid ......................................................... 246
12.7.2. Pembuatan aldehid ....................................................... 246
12.7.3. Reaksi-reaksi aldehid ..................................................... 247
12.7.3. Pemanfaatan aldehid .................................................... 247
12.8. Alkanol ....................................................................................... 247
12.8.1. Tata nama alkohol ......................................................... 248
12.7.2. Sifat-sifat alkohol........................................................... 248
12.7.3. Pemanfaatan alkohol .................................................... 249
12.9. Alkoksi Alkana ............................................................................ 250
12.9.1. Tata nama eter .............................................................. 250
12.9.2. Sifat-sifat eter ................................................................ 251
12.9.3. Pemanfaatan eter ......................................................... 251
12.10. Asam Alkanoat ......................................................................... 251
12.10.1. Tata nama asam karboksilat ....................................... 252
12.10.2. Sifat-sifat asam karboksilat ......................................... 252
12.10.3. Pemanfaatan asam karboksilat ................................... 253
12.11. Alkil alkanoat ........................................................................... 253
12.11.1. Tata nama ester .......................................................... 254
12.11.2. Sifat-sifat ester ............................................................ 254
12.11.3. Pemanfaatan ester ...................................................... 255
12.12. Alkil amina ............................................................................... 255
12.12.1. Tata nama alkil amina ................................................. 256
12.12.2. Sifat-sifat alkil amina ................................................... 256
12.13. Siklo alkana .............................................................................. 259
12.13.1. Tata nama siklo alkana ................................................ 259
12.14. Benzena ................................................................................... 260
12.14.1. Tata nama dan turunan benzena ................................ 2 60
12.14.2. Sifat-sifat benzena dan turunannya ............................ 261
12.14.3. Pemanfaatan senyawa benzena ................................. 261
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 263
Uji kompotensi .......................................................................... 266

Bab 13 Makromolekul .........................................................................
13.1. Polimer .................................................................................... 268
13.2. Klasifikasi polimer ..................................................................... 269
13.2.1 Polimer Alam .................................................................. 269
13.2.2. Polimer sintetik ............................................................. 269
13.3. Monomer ................................................................................ 270
13.4. Polimerisasi ............................................................................... 270
13.4.1 Polimerisasi adisi ............................................................ 271
13.4.2. Polimerisasi kondensasi ................................................ 271
13.5. Tata nama polimer .................................................................... 272
13.6. Sifat-sifat polimer ...................................................................... 273
13.7. Polimer di sekeliling kita ............................................................ 274
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 277
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 279

Bab 14 Biomolekul ................................................................................
14.1. Makromolekul pada makhluk hidup ....................................... 281
14.2. Air .............................................................................................. 281
14.3. Karbohidrat ............................................................................... 283
14.3.1. Monosakarida .............................................................. 285
14.3.2. Oligosakarida ................................................................. 287
14.3.3. Polisakarida ................................................................... 289
14.4. Protein ....................................................................................... 292
14.4.1 Peptida sebagai rantai protein ....................................... 295
14.5. Lipida ......................................................................................... 301
14.5.1 Asam lemak .................................................................... 301
14.5.2. Prostaglandin ................................................................ 303
14.5.3. Gliserol .......................................................................... 304
14.5.4. Trigliserida ..................................................................... 304
14.5.5. Wax ............................................................................... 305
14.5.6. Membran sel ................................................................. 305
14.5.7. Gliseroposfolipida ......................................................... 306
14.5.8. Sfingolipid dan glikosfingolipid ..................................... 306
14.5.9. Terpena ......................................................................... 307
14.5.10. Steroida ....................................................................... 307
14.6. Asam nukleat ............................................................................. 309
14.6.1 Nukleosida ...................................................................... 310
14.6.2. Nukleotida ..................................................................... 311
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 312
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 315

Bab 15 Pemisahan kimia dan analisis ..................................................
15.1. Pemisahan ............................................................................... 319
15.1.1. Pengayakan ................................................................... 319
15.1.2. Filtrasi ............................................................................ 320
15.1.3. Sentrifugasi ................................ ................................ ... 3 21
15.1.4. Kristalisasi ...................................................................... 322
15.1.5. Destilasi ......................................................................... 323
15.2. Analisis kuantitatif..................................................................... 324
15.2.1. Sampling ........................................................................ 324
15.2.2. Sediaan sampel ............................................................. 324
15.2.3. Pengukuran sampel ....................................................... 325
15.3. Gravimetri ................................................................................. 328
15.4. Volumetri .................................................................................. 329
15.4.1. Titrasi asam basa ........................................................... 331
15.4.2. Titrasi redoks ................................................................. 332
15.4.3. Titrasi Argentometri ...................................................... 334
15.4.4. Nitrimetri ....................................................................... 334
Rangkuman ............................................................................... 336
Uji Kompetensi .......................................................................... 338

Daftar Pustaka ................................................................................ 340
Glosarium ....................................................................................... 342

Lampiran .............................................................................................
1. Kunci Jawaban ............................................................................. 356
2. Tabel Periodik .............................................................................. 357
3. Daftar Unsur ................................................................................ 358
4. Konfigurasi Elektron .................................................................... 359
5. Energi Ionisasi Kation .................................................................. 360
6. Tetapan Ionisasi Asam Lemah ..................................................... 361
7. Tetapan Ionisasi Basa Lemah ...................................................... 368
8. Data Hasil Kali Kelarutan ............................................................. 369
9. Potensial Reduksi Standar ........................................................... 373
10. Eltalpi Pembentukan Std
Indeks ............................................................................................ 386