Buku Teknik Dasar Pekerjaan Laboratorium Kimia Kelas 10 SMK

SMK Kelas 10

Buku Teknik Dasar Pekerjaan Laboratorium Kimia Kelas 10 SMK
Kelas 10
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Penerbit Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan
Tahun 2014
Baca Online Beli di Shopee

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Materi Teknik Dasar Pekerjaan Laboratorium Kimia

KATA PENGANTAR ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... ii
DAFTAR ISI ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. iii
DAFTAR GAMBAR ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... vii
DAFTAR TABEL ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... x
PETA KEDUDUKAN BUKU TEKS BAHAN AJAR ................................ ................................ .............. xi
GLOSARIUM ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... xii

I. PENDAHULUAN ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 1
A. Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 1
B. Prasyarat ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 1
C. Petunjuk Penggunaan ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1
D. Tujuan Akhir ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 3
E. KOMPETENSI INTI DAN KOMPETENSI DASAR ................................ ............................. 4
F. CEK KEMAMPUAN AWAL ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 7

II. PEMBELAJARAN ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 10
Kegiatan Pembelajaran 1: Teknik Penimbangan dengan Neraca Analitik .................... 10
A. Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 10
B. Kegiatan Belajar ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 10
1. Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 10
2. Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 11
a. Prinsip Timbangan ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11
b. Jenis Dan Fungsi Timbangan ................................ ................................ .................... 14
c. Perawatan dan Kalibrasi Neraca Analitik ................................ ............................ 30
d. Teknik Penggunaan Neraca ................................ ................................ ...................... 34
e. Validasi Alat Timbangan ................................ ................................ ............................. 37
3. Refleksi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 44
4. Tugas/Lembar Kerja ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 45
5. Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 48
C. Penilaian ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 49
1. Sikap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 49
2. Pengetahuan ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 50
3. Keterampilan ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 53

Kegiatan Pembelajaran 2. Penanganan Limbah B3 dan Non B3 ................................ ....... 56
A. Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 56
B. Kegiatan Belajar ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 56
1. Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 56
2. Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 57
a. Limbah Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3) ................................ ...................... 57
b. Limbah Non Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (Non B3) ................................ ... 91
3. Refleksi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .140
4. Tu gas /Lembar kerja ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 141
5. Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 149
C. Penilaian ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..150
1. Sikap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 150
2. Pengetahuan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 151
3. Keterampilan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 151

Kegiatan Pembelajaran 3. Analisis Titimetri Secara Sederhana ................................ ...154
A. Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..154
B. Kegiatan Belajar ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 154
1. Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 154
2. Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 154
a. Prinsip Titimetri ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 155
b. Persyaratan Reaksi Titrasi ................................ ................................ ....................... 156
c. Penggolongan Titimetri ................................ ................................ ............................. 157
d. Cara Pelaksanaan Titrasi ................................ ................................ .......................... 169
e. Alat Ukur yang digunakan Analisis Titrimetri ................................ .................. 170
f. Membersihkan Alat -Alat Titrimetri ................................ ................................ ...... 178
g. Kalibrasi Alat -Alat Ukur Titimetri ................................ ................................ ......... 179
h. Perhitungan dalam Analisis Titimetri ................................ ................................ .185
i. Cara Menghitung Kadar ................................ ................................ ............................ 189
j. Larutan Standar ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 190
k. Pembuatan Larutan Baku dan Standardisasi ................................ .................... 192
l. Perbandingan Cara -Cara Titrasi dan Gravimetri (Pengendapan) ............ 193
3. Refleksi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .195
4. Tugas/Lembar Kerja ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 196
5. Tes formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 200
C. Penilaian ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..203
1. Sikap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 203
2. Pengetahuan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 204
3. Keterampilan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 204

Kegiatan Pembelajaran 4 : Analisis Gravimetri Secara Sederhana ................................ 207
A. Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..207
B. Kegiatan Belajar ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 207
1. Tujua n Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 207
2. Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 207
a. Penilaian Analisis Secara Gravimetri ................................ ................................ ...209
b. Sumber -sumber kesalahan analisis gravimetri ................................ ............... 210
c. Macam -macam Metode Gravimetri ................................ ................................ ...... 211
d. Langkah -langkah Analisis Gravimetri ................................ ................................ .218
e. Alat -Alat yang Digunakan Analisis Gravimetri ................................ ................. 240
3. Refleksi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .244
4. Tugas/lembar kerja ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 245
5. Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 252
C. Penilaian ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..253
1. Sikap ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 253
2. Pengetahuan ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 254
3. Keterampilan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 254
III. PENUTUP ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 257
DAFTAR PUSTAKA ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 258

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Gambar 1 . Kilogram standar No.20 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 16
Gambar 2 . Neraca Satu Piring - Tiga Lengan ................................ ................................ ................. 18
Gambar 3 . Bagian -bagi an Timbangan ................................ ................................ .............................. 20
Gambar 4 . Neraca dua piring ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 23
Gambar 5 . Neraca Analitik Digital ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 27
Gambar 6 . Posisi A dan C menimbulkan kesalahan paralaks , posisi B yang benar. ........................................... ................. 41
Gambar 7 Identifikasi Limbah B3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 61
Gambar 8 . Tanda/Label pada Limbah B3 yang Mudah Meledak ................................ .......... 62
Gambar 9 . Tanda/Label pada Limbah B3 yang Mudah Terbakar ................................ ......... 64
Gambar 10 . Tanda/Label pada Limbah B3 Reaktif ................................ ................................ ..... 66
Gambar 11 . Tanda/Label pada Limbah B3 Beracun ................................ ................................ . 68
Gambar 12 . Tanda/Label pada Limbah B3 Infeksius ................................ ............................... 70
Gambar 13 Alur proses pengolahan limbah B3 ................................ ................................ ............ 81
Gambar 14 . Secured Landfill ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 85
Gambar 15 Deep Injec ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 87
Gambar 1 6. Incineration ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 90
Gambar 17 . Sistem pengelolaan sampah ................................ ................................ ....................... 92
Gambar 18 . Kerusakan Lingkungan Akibat Sampah ................................ ................................ . 94
Gambar 19 . Sanitary Landfill ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 95
Gambar 20 . Open dumping ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 96
Gambar 21 . Diagram transmisi kuman ................................ ................................ ........................... 97
Gambar 22 . Sampah organik ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 98
Gambar 23 . Sampah non -organik ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 99
Gambar 24 . Sampah kaleng ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 102
Gambar 25 . Sampah Styrofoam ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 103
Gambar 26 . Sampah kertas ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 104
Gambar 27 . Bahan berbahaya dan beracun ................................ ................................ ................. 105
Gambar 28 . Proses pemilahan sampah ................................ ................................ ......................... 112
Gambar 29 . Pemilahan sampah ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 114
Gambar 30 . Pemilahan sampah oleh petugas ................................ ................................ ............. 114
Gambar 31 . Pola penanganan sampah di TPS ................................ ................................ ............. 115
Gambar 32 . Alur proses pengomposan ................................ ................................ ......................... 118
Gambar 33 . Takakura (kiri) dan Bambookura (kanan) ................................ ......................... 122
Gambar 34 . Komposting Doskura ................................ ................................ ................................ ...123
Gambar 35 . Komposting dengan Ember Berlubang ................................ ................................ .124
Gambar 36 . Pengomposan menggunakan gentong ................................ ................................ ..125
Gambar 37 . Composting dengan drum ................................ ................................ .......................... 125
Gambar 38 . Drum/tong plastik yang digunakan dalam composting ................................ .126
Gambar 39 .. Bak/ kotak. ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 126
Gambar 40 . Takakura Susun ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 127
Gambar 41 . Proses daur ulang plastik menjadi bijih plastik dan digunakan kembali sebagai barang rumah tangga ............................ ........... 140
Gambar 42 . Alat dan bahan untuk komposter Takakura ................................ ....................... 142
Gambar 43 . S usunan bagian dalam keranjang Takakura ................................ ....................... 142
Gambar 44 . Proses titrasi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 170
Gambar 45. Buret ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...173
Gambar 46 . Pipet Volume ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 175
Gambar 47 .. Labu ukur ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 176
Gambar 48 . Erlenmeyer ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 177
Gambar 49 . Cara quarter (memperempat) ................................ ................................ ................. 219
Gambar 50 . Pembentukan nukleasi ................................ ................................ ................................ 221
Gambar 51 . Proses pengendapan ( kompetisi antara nukleasi dan particle growth ) .222
Gambar 52 . Tahapan melipat (folding) kertas saring ................................ ............................ 226
Gambar 53 . Teknik penyaringan dengan kertas saring ................................ .......................... 226
Gambar 54 . Penggunaan Botol Semprot dalam Membilas Endapan ............................... 227
Gambar 55 . Inklusi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .238
Gambar 56. Oklusi ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..239
Gambar 57. Adsorpsi ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 240
Gambar 58 . Pengarangan Endapan dalam Krus ................................ ................................ ........ 241
Gambar 59. Penjepit Krus ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 241
Gambar 60 . Eksikator/desikator ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 242
Gambar 61 . Tanur/Furnace ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 243
Gambar 62 Timbangan ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 244
Gambar 6 3. Oven ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 244

DAFTAR TABEL
Tabel 1 . Jenis dan fungsi neraca ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 12
Tabel 2 . Contoh Campuran Eksplosif ................................ ................................ ............................... 62
Tabel 3 . Bahan -bahan yang mudah terbakar digolongkan sesuai dengan tingkat bahayanya : ............................ ................ 65
Tabel 4 . Limbah berbahaya produksi industri ................................ ................................ ............ 69
Tabel 5 . Jenis Sampah dan Lamanya Hancur ................................ ................................ .............. 100
Tabel 6 . Sampah gelas di pantai ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 101
Tabel 7 . Sampah gelas/ kaca ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 10 1
Tabel 8 . Jenis Sampah ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 106
Tabel 9. Panduan pemetaan fasilitas persampahan ................................ ................................ .108
Tabel 10 . Standar pengomposan ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 132
Tabel 11 . Indikator asam - basa ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 160
Tabel 12 . Volume alat gelas(dikoreksi pada 20 0C) yang mengandung 1 gram air pada berbagai temperatur ........................ ............................. 180
Tabel 13. Toleransi untuk alat ukur volumetri dari gelas (mL) ................................ .......... 181
Tabel 14Beberapa contoh faktor gravimetri ................................ ................................ .............. 229
Tabel 15. Perbedaan antara suspensi, koloid dan larutan ................................ ..................... 233
Tabel 16 . Hasil kali Kelarutan Endapan -endapan pada Suhu Kamar ................................ 236