Buku Teknik Kerja Bengkel Kelas 10 SMK

Buku Teknik Kerja Bengkel Kelas 10 SMK


Kelas 10
Pengarang -
Penerbit Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan
Tahun 2014
Bagikan kepada teman anda.

Materi Teknik Kerja Bengkel

DISKLAIMER ( DISCLAIMER ) ................................ ................................ ................. 3
KATA PENGANTAR ................................ ................................ ............................... 4
PETA KEDUDUKAN MODUL ................................ ................................ ............... 15
KEGIATAN BELAJAR 1 ................................ ................................ ........................ 16
Kesehatan dan Keselamat Kerja ................................ ................................ .......... 16

KEGIATAN 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 17
1.1 Undanga -undang Ketenagakerjaan Indonesia ................................ .......... 17
1.1.1 Pengertian ................................ ................................ .............................. 18
1.1.2 Syarat -syarat Keselamatan Kerja ................................ .......................... 20
1.1.3 Hak dan Kewajiban Buruh/Pekerja dalam Pelaksanaan K3 ................. 21
1.1.4 Hak dan Kewajiban Pengusaha dalamPelaksanaan K3 ....................... 22
1.1.5 Penerapan K3 di perusahaan ................................ ................................ 22
1.1.6 Peranan Serikat Pekerja dalam pengembangan K3 ............................. 23
1.2 Kesehatan Kerja ................................ ................................ ......................... 24
1.2.1 Faktor -faktor penyakit akibat kerja ................................ ......................... 24
1.2.1.1 Fisik ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24
1.2.1.2 Kimiawi ................................ ................................ ................................ 24
1.2.1.3 Faal ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 24
1.2.1.4 Mental psikologik ................................ ................................ ................ 24
1.2.1.5 Hayati ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 24
1.2.2 Faktor -faktor Penyebab bahaya terhadap kesehatan ........................... 25
1.3 .Keselamatan Kerja ................................ ................................ .................... 28
1.3.1 Faktor -faktor penyebab kecelakaan kerja Keselamatan Kerja .............. 28
1.3.1.1 Faktor manusia ................................ ................................ ................... 28
1.3.1.2 Faktor alat -alat kerja ................................ ................................ ........... 28
1.3.1.3 Faktor lingkungan kerja ................................ ................................ ...... 28
1.3.2 Lingkungan kerja yang diharapkan ................................ ........................ 28
1.3.3 Tindakan berbahaya ................................ ................................ ............... 28
1.3.4 Keadaan berbahaya ................................ ................................ ............... 29
1.3.5 Macam kecelakaan ................................ ................................ ................ 29
1.4 .Perlindungan Kesehatan ................................ ................................ ................. 30
1.4.1 Pertolongan Pertama pada Kecelakaan (P3K) ................................ .......... 30
1.4.2 Perlengkapan P3K ................................ ................................ ......................... 31
1.4.2.1 Kotak P3K ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31
1.4.2.2 Perlengkapan Tambahann P3K ................................ ............................... 31
1.5 . Pelindung Diri ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 32
1.5.1 Alat Pelindung Diri ................................ ................................ ......................... 32
1.5.2 Simbol -simbol Pelindung Diri ................................ ................................ ....... 36
1.5.2.1 Simbol -simbol Wajib Mengunakan PPE ................................ ................. 36
1.5.2.2 Simbol -simbol Waspada terhadap Bahaya ................................ ............ 37
1.5.2.3 Simbol -simbol Larangan ................................ ................................ ........... 38
1.5.2.4 Simbol -simbol Petunjuk P3K ................................ ................................ .... 39
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 40
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 41
Lembar Kerja Peserta didik ................................ ................................ .......................... 42

KEGIATAN BELAJAR 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ 44
Kerja Bengkel ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 44
KEGIATAN 1 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 45
2.1 Alat Pemegang Benda ................................ ................................ ...................... 45
2.1.1 Ragum ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45
2.1.2 Alat Pengukur ................................ ................................ ................................ . 46
2.1.2.1 Mistar Ukur ................................ ................................ ................................ . 46
2.1.2.2 Mistar Lipat ................................ ................................ ................................ . 47
2.1.2.3 Mistar Gulung (Rol Meter) ................................ ................................ ........ 48
2.1.2.4 Jangka Sorong ................................ ................................ ........................... 49
2.1.2.5 Busur Derajat (Protractor) ................................ ................................ ........ 50
2.1.2.6 Pengukur Tinggi (Hight Gauge) ................................ ............................... 50
2.1.2.7 Mistar Geser ................................ ................................ ............................... 51
2.1.3 Penyiku ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 52
2.1.3.1 Mal Radius ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 52
2.1.3.2 Jangka Bengkok ................................ ................................ ........................ 53
2.1.3.3 Jangka Kaki ................................ ................................ ................................ 54
2.1.4 Alat Penanda ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 55
2.1.4.1 Penggores ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 55
2.1.4.2 Penitik ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 55
2.1.4.3 Jangka Tusuk ................................ ................................ ............................. 56
2.1.4.4 Jangka Pincang (Hermaphrodite caliper) ................................ ............... 56
2.1.4.5 Stempel ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 57
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 58
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 60
Lembar Kerja Peserta didik ................................ ................................ .......................... 61

KEGIATAN 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 63
2.1.5 Alat Pemotong ................................ ................................ ................................ 63
2.1.5.1 Gergaji tangan ................................ ................................ ............................ 63
2.1.5.2 Pahat ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 64
2.1.6 Alat Penyerut ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 67
2.1.6.1 Kikir ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 67
2.1.7 Alat Pelubang ................................ ................................ ................................ . 69
2.1.7.1 Drip (Pin Punch) ................................ ................................ ......................... 69
2.1.7.2 Bor ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 70
2.1.8 Alat Pengulir ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 72
2.1.8.1 Tap ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 72
2.1.8.2 Snei (die) ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 73
2.1.9 Alat Pemukul ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 74
2.1.9.1 Palu Pen ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 74
2.1.9.2 Palu Konde ................................ ................................ ................................ . 74
2.1.9.3 Palu Plastik ................................ ................................ ................................ . 75
2.1.10 Mes in Bor ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 75
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 76
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 77
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 78
Lembar Kerja Peserta didik ................................ ................................ .......................... 79

KEGIATAN 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 81
2.1.11 Teknik Mengikir ................................ ................................ .............................. 81
2.1.11.1 Gigi Kikir: ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 84
2.1.11.2 Posisi kaki ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 85
2.1.11.3 Pemegangan Kikir ................................ ................................ ..................... 86
2.1.11.4 Arah pengikiran ................................ ................................ .......................... 87
2.1.11.5 Pemeriksaan Kerataan, Kesikuan, dan Kesejajaran ............................. 87
2.1.11.6 Tinggi Bangku Kerja ................................ ................................ .................. 89
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 90
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 91
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 91
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ......................... 92

KEGIATAN 3 ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 95
2.1.1 2 Teknik Menandai ................................ ................................ ........................... 95
2.1.12.1 Menggores ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 95
2.1.12.2 Menitik ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 97
2.1. 12.3 Stempel ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 99
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 101
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 102
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 102
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 103

KEGIATAN 4 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 105
2.1.13 Teknik Menggergaji ................................ ................................ ..................... 105
2.1.13.1 Gergaji ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 105
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 108
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 109
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 109

KEGIATAN 5 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 113
2.1.14 Teknik Memahat ................................ ................................ .......................... 113
2.1.14.1 Memahat ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 113
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 116
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 116
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 116
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 117

KEGIATAN 6 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 121
2.1.15 Teknik Mengebor ................................ ................................ ......................... 121
2.1.15.1 Mengebor ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 121
1.5.3 Mengasah Mata Bor ................................ ................................ .................... 123
2.1.15.2 Mengatur Kecepatan Bor ................................ ................................ ........ 126
2.1.15.3 Menyiapkan Benda Kerja ................................ ................................ ....... 127
2.1.15.4 Persing ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 130
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 131
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 132
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 132
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 133

KEGIATAN 7 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 138
2.1.16 Teknik Mengulir dan Mengeling ................................ ................................ . 138
2.1.16.1 Mengulir ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 138
2.1.17 Mengeling ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 145
2.1.17.1 Alat -alat pengelingan ................................ ................................ .............. 147
2.1.17.2 Menentukan panjang paku keling. ................................ ......................... 148
2.1.17.3 Kesalahan pengelingan. ................................ ................................ ......... 149
2.1.17.4 Proses pengelingan. ................................ ................................ ................ 151
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 154
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 155
Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 155
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 156

KEGIATAN BELAJAR 3 ................................ ................................ ...................... 166
Gambar T eknik Elektronika ................................ ................................ ........................ 166
KEGIATAN 1: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 167
3.1 Memahami Macam -macam Simbol ................................ ............................... 167
3.1.1 Macam -macam Simbol Penghubung ................................ ........................ 167
3.1.2 Macam -macam Simbol Resistor ................................ ................................ 168
3.1.3 Macam -macam Simbol Kapasitor ................................ ............................. 169
3.1.4 Macam -macam Simbol Induktor ................................ ................................ 169
3.1.5 Macam -macam Simbol Sakelar dan Relay ................................ .............. 170
3.1.6 Macam -macam Simbol Sumber Tegangan ................................ ............. 171
3.1.7 Macam -macam Simbol Alat Ukur ................................ .............................. 173
3.1.8 Macam -macam Simbol Lampu ................................ ................................ .. 173
3.1.9 Macam -macam Simbol Antena ................................ ................................ .. 174
3.1.10 Macam -macam Simbol Transistor ................................ ............................. 174
3.1.11 Macam -macam Simbol Dioda ................................ ................................ .... 175
3.1.12 Macam -macam Simbol Gerbang Logika ................................ .................. 176
3.1.13 Macam -macam Simbol Lain ................................ ................................ ....... 177
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 179
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 179
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 179
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 180

KEGIATAN 2 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 181
3.2 Memahami teknik gambar rangkaian elektronik a ................................ ........ 181
3.2.1 Memulai Program Pembuat Skematik Rangkaian Elektronika EAGLE 181
3.2.1.1 Library ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 182
3.2.1.2 Aturan desain ................................ ................................ ........................... 183
3.2.1.3 Bahasa Program User ................................ ................................ ............. 183
3.2.2 Project ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 183
3.2.2.1 Persiapan Project ................................ ................................ .................... 183
3.2.2.2 Membuat sebuah file skematik ................................ .............................. 184
3.2.2.3 Membuat sebu ah file board ................................ ................................ .... 185
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 188
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 188
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 188
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 189

KEGIATAN 3 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 190
3.2.3 Memilih Part pada Sk ematik ................................ ................................ ...... 190
Teknik Kerja Bengkel
3.2.3.1 Jendela Penambah Part ................................ ................................ ......... 190
3.2.3.2 Penambahan Part (Add) ................................ ................................ ......... 191
3.2.3.3 Pembatalan Fungsi (Cancel) ................................ ................................ .. 192
3.2.3.4 Menampilkan Pengaturan Layar ................................ ............................ 193
3.2.3.5 Menghapus Part (Delete) ................................ ................................ ........ 193
3.2.3.6 Memindahkan Part (Move) ................................ ................................ ..... 194
3.2.3.7 Penambahan Terminal Tegangan dan Ground (Invoke) .................... 194
3.2.3.8 Memutar Part (Rotate) ................................ ................................ ............ 197
3.2.3.9 Menetapkan Nilai Part (Value) ................................ ............................... 197
3.2.3.10 Menetapkan Nama P art (Name) ................................ ............................ 198
3.2.3.11 Mengganti Nama dan Posisi Part (Smash) ................................ .......... 198
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 199
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 200
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 200
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 201

KEGIATAN 4 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 202
3.2.4 Memahami Pengawatan Seluruh Part pada Skematik ........................... 202
3.2.4.1 Pengawatan Menggunakan Fungsi Kawat (Wire) ............................... 202
3.2.4.2 Ikatan Pengawatan(Bus) ................................ ................................ ........ 204
3.2.4.3 Menampilkan Informasi Part (Info) ................................ ........................ 207
3.2.4.4 Tanda Koneksi Pengawatan (Junction) ................................ ................ 208
3.2.4.5 Pengawatan Tegangan dan Ground ................................ ..................... 208
3.2.4.6 Pengawatan J aringan (Net) ................................ ................................ .... 212
3.2.4.7 Akhir dari Penggambaran Skematik ................................ ...................... 213
3.2.4.8 Pemeriksaan Aturan Kelistrikan (ERC) ................................ ................. 214
3.2.4.9 Konfirmasi Board ................................ ................................ ..................... 214
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 216
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 217
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 217
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 218

KEGIATAN 5 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 219
3.2.5 Penyusunan Part pada Board ................................ ................................ .... 219
3.2.5.1 Penentuan Ukuran dan Grid Board ................................ ....................... 221
3.2.5.2 Pemeriksaan Aturan Disain (DRC) ................................ ........................ 223
3.2.5.3 Tampilan Kontrol Nama dan Nilai Part Display) ................................ .. 226
3.2.5.4 Auto Rute (Auto) ................................ ................................ ...................... 228
3.2.5.5 Pemilihan Arah (Preferred Direction) ................................ .................... 229
3.2.5.6 Grid Rute (Routing Grid) ................................ ................................ ......... 229
3.2.5.7 Bentuk Via (Via Shape) ................................ ................................ ........... 229
3.2.5.8 Simpan Sebagai… (Save As…) ................................ ............................ 229
3.2.5.9 Memuat (Load) ................................ ................................ ......................... 229
3.2.5.10 Tampilan Kesalahan ................................ ................................ ................ 231
3.2.5.11 Mengganti Posisi Nama ................................ ................................ .......... 232
3.2.5.12 Membuat Ulang Pola ( Ripup) ................................ ................................ . 234
3.2.5.13 Restorasi Semua pola ke Konsisi Asli ................................ .................. 234
3.2.5.14 Restorasi sebagian pola ke Konsisi Asli ................................ ............... 235
3.2.5.15 Bila Pengembalian Banyak Pola ................................ ........................... 236
3.2.5.16 Menggambar Pola Secara Manual ................................ ........................ 236
3.2.5.17 Tampilan Pola Sisi Komponen ................................ ............................... 239
3.2.5.18 Mencetak Pola Sisi Komponen ................................ .............................. 240
3.2.5.19 Mencetak Pola Sisi Pengawatan ................................ ........................... 241
Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 242
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 243
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 243
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 244

KEGIATAN 6 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 246
3.3 Proyek PIC -LED Berkedip ................................ ................................ .............. 246
3.3.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 247
3.3.2 Tata Letak Komponen ................................ ................................ ................. 247
3.3.3 Jalur Pengawa tan ................................ ................................ ........................ 248
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 248
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 248
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 249

KEGIATAN 7 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 250
3.4 Proyek Pewaktu 555 ................................ ................................ ....................... 250
3.4.1 Rangkaian Elektro nika ................................ ................................ ................ 251
3.4.2 Tata Letak Komponen dan Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ........ 251
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 252
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 252
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 253

KEGIATAN 8 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 254
3.5 Proyek Pewaktu Turun ................................ ................................ .................... 254
3.5.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 255
3.5.2 Tata Letak Komponen ................................ ................................ ................. 255
3.5.3 Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ................................ ........................ 256
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 256
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 256
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 257

KEGIATAN 9 : ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 258
3.6 Proyek Multivibrator Astabil ................................ ................................ ............ 258
3.6.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 259
3.6.2 Tata Letak Komponen dan Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ....... 259
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 260
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 260
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 261

KEGIATAN 10 : ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 262
3.7 Proyek Osilator Sinusoidal ................................ ................................ ............. 262
3.7.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 263
3.7. 2 Tata Letak Komponen ................................ ................................ ................. 263
3.7.3 Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ................................ ........................ 264
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 264
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 264
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 265

KEGIATAN 11 : ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 266
3.8 Proyek Detektor Infrared ................................ ................................ ................ 266
3.8.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 267
3.8.2 Tata Letak Komponen ................................ ................................ ................. 267
3.8.3 Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ................................ ........................ 268
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 268
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 268
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 269

KEGIATAN 12 : ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 270
3.9 Proyek Osilator Segitiga ................................ ................................ ................. 270
3.9.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 271
3.9.2 Tata Letak Komponen dan Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ........ 271
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 272
Test Formatif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 272
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 273

KEGIATAN 13 : ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 274
3.10 Proyek Osilator Segitiga ................................ ................................ ................. 274
3.10.1 Rangkaian Elektronika ................................ ................................ ................ 275
3.10.2 Tat a Letak Komponen ................................ ................................ ................. 276
3.10.3 Jalur Pengawatan ................................ ................................ ........................ 276
Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 277
Test For matif ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 277
Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ................................ ....................... 278