Buku Teknik Kontrol Kelas 10 SMK

Buku Teknik Kontrol Kelas 10 SMK


Kelas 10
Pengarang -
Penerbit Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan
Tahun 2014
Bagikan kepada teman anda.

Materi Teknik Kontrol

KATA PENGANTAR ................................ ................................ .................. iv
DAFTAR ISI ................................ ................................ ................................ v
PETA KEDUDUKAN BAHAN AJAR ................................ .......................... xix
PETA KONSEP BIDANG KEAHLIAN TEKNOLOGI DAN REKAYASA P ROGRAM
KEAHLIAN TEKNIK ELEKTRONIKA PAKET KEAHLIAN TEKNIK
MEKATRONIKA ................................ ................................ ..................... xxxii

BAB I
PENDAHULUAN ................................ ................................ ......................... 2
1.1 Deskripsi ................................ ................................ ................................ . 2
1.2 Prasyarat ................................ ................................ ................................ 2
1.3 Petunjuk Penggunaan ................................ ................................ ............. 2
1.4 Tu juan Akhir ................................ ................................ ............................ 2
1.5 Kompetensi Inti dan Kompetensi Dasar ................................ .................. 2
1.6 Cek Kemampuan Awal ................................ ................................ ............ 5

BAB II
DASAR -DASAR TEKNIK KONTROL ................................ .......................... 6
2.1 Kegiatan Belajar 1: Pengantar Teknik Kontrol ................................ ......... 6
2.1.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ........... 6
2.1.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ....................... 6

PENGANTAR TEKNIK KONTROL ................................ ............................... 6
A. Pendahuluan ................................ ................................ ............................ 6
B. Pengantar ke Subyek Kontrol dan Kontrol Otomatis ................................ . 7
B.1 Definisi dan Istilah ................................ ................................ .................. 7
B.2 Definisi Kontrol ( Open Loop Control ) ................................ ...................... 8
B.2.1 Proses Kontrol Open Loop ................................ ................................ 12
B.3 Definisi Kontrol Otomatis ( Close Loop Control ) ................................ ..... 14
B.3.1 Proses Kontrol Otomatis ( Close Loop ) ................................ ............... 15
B.4 Dasar Teknik Kontr ol dan Kontrol Otomatis ................................ .......... 17
B.4.1 Sinyal ................................ ................................ ................................ 17
B.4.1.1 Sinyal Analog ................................ ................................ ................. 17
B.4.1.2 Sinyal Diskrit ................................ ................................ ................... 18
B.4.2.2.1 Sinyal Digital ................................ ................................ ................ 19
B.4.2.2.2 Sinyal Biner ................................ ................................ ................. 20
C. Rantai Kontrol ................................ ................................ ........................ 21
D. Jenis -jenis Energi (Media Kontrol) ................................ .......................... 24
E. Pembedaan Karakteristik Kontrol ................................ ........................... 24
2.1.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ....................... 29
2.1.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ . 30
2.1.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ....................... 31
2.1.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ........................... 32
2.1.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................... 33
2.2 Keg iatan Belajar 2: Metode Penggambaran dalam Teknik Kontrol ........ 34
2.2.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ......... 34
2.2.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ..................... 34

METODE PENGGAMBARAN TEKNIK KONTROL ................................ ..... 34
A. Penggambaran Urutan Gerakan dan Kondisi Pensakelaran ................... 34
A.1 Menulis dalam Urutan Kronologis ................................ ......................... 35
A.2 Bentuk Tabel ................................ ................................ ........................ 35
A.3 Diagram Vekto r ................................ ................................ .................... 36
A.4 Notasi Singkatan ................................ ................................ .................. 36
A.5 Chart Fungsi ................................ ................................ ......................... 37
A.5.1 Tujuan Ch art Fungsi ................................ ................................ .......... 37
A.5.2 Aturan dan Simbol Grafis Chart Fungsi ................................ ............. 37
A.5.3 Penggambaran Chart Fungsi Mesin Pemindah Paket ....................... 41
A.6 Penggambaran Grafik dalam Bentuk Diagram Fungsi .......................... 42
A.6.1 Diagram Ge rakan ................................ ................................ .............. 42
A.6.1.1 Diagram Pemindahan -langkah ................................ ....................... 42
A.6.1.2 Diagram Pemindahan -Waktu ................................ .......................... 44
A.6.1.3 Diagram Kontrol ................................ ................................ .............. 45

B. Standar Penggambaran dan Simbol ................................ ....................... 46
B.1 Gerakan ................................ ................................ ............................... 47

C. Pemecahan Masalah Kontrol ................................ ................................ . 50
C.1 Definisi Masalah, Pembatasan Kondisi ................................ ................ 50

D. Contoh Kasus ................................ ................................ ........................ 51
D.1 Prosedur Pemecahan Masalah ................................ ............................ 52
D.2 Definisi Masalah dan Kondisi ................................ ............................... 52
D.3 Memilih Energi Kerja dan Posisi Komponen Kerja ................................ 52
D.4 Sket Posisi ................................ ................................ ........................... 53
D.5 Penentuan Urutan Operasi ................................ ................................ ... 54
D.6 Pemilihan jenis kontrol ................................ ................................ ......... 54
D.7 Energi kontrol ................................ ................................ ....................... 55

E. Software Kontrol ................................ ................................ ..................... 55
2.2.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ....................... 58
2.2.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ . 59
2.1.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ....................... 60
2.1.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ........................... 61
2.1.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................... 62

BAB III

TEKNIK DIGITAL ................................ ................................ ...................... 63
3.1 Kegiatan Belajar 3: Hubungan Logika Dasar ................................ ......... 63
3.1.1 Tujuan Pembelaj aran ................................ ................................ ......... 63
3.1.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ..................... 63

HUBUNGAN LOGIKA DASAR ................................ ................................ .... 63
A. Bentu k-bentuk Sinyal ................................ ................................ .............. 63
B. Hubungan Logika Dasar ................................ ................................ ......... 65
B.1 Fungsi AND (Konjungsi) ................................ ................................ ....... 67
B.2 Fungsi OR (Disjungsi) ................................ ................................ .......... 69
B.3 Fungsi NOT (Negasi) ................................ ................................ ............ 70
B.4 Fungsi NAND ................................ ................................ ....................... 72
B.5 Fungsi EXCLUSIVE OR (EX -OR) ................................ ......................... 73
B.6 Fungsi EQUIVALENCE atau EXCLUSIVE NOR (EX -NOR) .................. 74
B.7 Penggunaan Operasi Logika ................................ ................................ 74
3.1.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ....................... 78
3.1.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ . 79
3.1.5 Tes Fo rmatif ................................ ................................ ....................... 80
3.1.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ........................... 81
3.1.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................... 82
3.2 Kegiatan Belajar 4: Fungsi Penyimpan ................................ ................. 83
3.2.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ......... 83
3.2.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ..................... 83

FUNGSI PENYIMPAN ................................ ................................ ................ 83
A. Rangkaian Penyimpan ................................ ................................ ........... 83
A.1 Multivibrator Bistabil ................................ ................................ ............. 85
A.2 RS Flip -Flop dengan Dominan Set atau Reset ................................ ..... 85
A.3 Modul memori dengan kontrol input ................................ ...................... 86
A.4 D -Flip -Flop dengan Kontrol Dinamis ................................ ..................... 86
A.5 JK Flip -Flop ................................ ................................ .......................... 87
B. JK Master -Slave Flip Flop (JK -MS -FF) ................................ ................... 88
C. JK Master Slave Flip -Flop dengan Input Statis ................................ ....... 89
3.2.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ....................... 91
3.2.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ................................ . 92
3.2.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ....................... 93
3.2.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ........................... 94
3.2.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................... 95
3.3 Kegiatan Belajar 5: Fungsi Cou nter (Pencacah) ................................ .... 96
3.3.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ......... 96
3.3.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ..................... 96

FUNGSI COUNTER (PENCACAH) ................................ ............................ 96
A. Rangkaian Counter (Pencacah) ................................ ............................. 96
A.1 Counter Asinkron ................................ ................................ .................. 97
A.2 Counter Sinkron ................................ ................................ ................... 99
A.3 Register ................................ ................................ .............................. 102
A.4 Register Geser (Pri nsip) ................................ ................................ ..... 103
A. Blok Digital Khusus ................................ ................................ ............... 110
3.3.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 113
3.3.4 Tu gas ................................ ................................ ............................... 114
3.3.5 Tes Formatif Fungsi Counter ................................ ........................... 115
3.3.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 116
3.3.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 117
3.4 Kegiatan Belajar 6: Sistem Bilangan ................................ ................... 118
3.4.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 118
3.4.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 118

SISTEM BILANGAN ................................ ................................ ................. 118
A. Umum ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 118
B. Sistem Desimal (Dinari) ................................ ................................ ........ 120
C. Sistem Biner ................................ ................................ ......................... 121
D. Sistem Heksadesimal ................................ ................................ ........... 122
E. Konversi Basis Bilangan ................................ ................................ ....... 123
E.1 Konversi Bilangan Desimal Ke Sistem Bilangan Lain ......................... 123
E.2 Konversi Basis Bilangan Lain Ke Bilangan Desimal ....................... 126
E.3 Konversi Basis Bilangan Ke Basis Bilangan Lain ................................ 127
E.4 Bentuk Bilangan Desimal dan Bilangan Biner antara 0 dan 1 ............. 129
E.5 Bentuk Bilangan Negatif ................................ ................................ ..... 133
3.4.3 Rangkuman Sistem Bilangan ................................ ........................... 136
3.4.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 137
3.4.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 138
3.4.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 139
3.4.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 140
3.5 Kegiatan Be lajar 7: Konverter ................................ ............................. 141
3.5.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 141
3.5.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 141

BILANGAN BERKODE DAN PENGUBAH BENTUK SINYAL (KONVERTER) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 141
A. Bilangan Dalam Bentuk Kode ................................ ............................... 141
A.1 Bentuk BCD - Bine r Code Desimal ................................ ..................... 141
A.2 Bentuk BCH - Biner Code Heksadesimal ................................ ....... 142
A.3 ASCII Code - American Standard Code for Information I nterchange 143
A.4 Pengubah Kode ................................ ................................ .................. 144
B. Pengubah Bentuk Sinyal ................................ ................................ ...... 145
3.5.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 149
3.5.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 150
3.5.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 151
3.5.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 152
3.5.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 153

BAB IV
RANGKAIAN KONTROL ................................ ................................ ........ 154
4.1 Kegiatan Belajar 8: Desain Rangkaian Kontrol ................................ .... 154
4.1.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 154
4.1.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 154

RANGKAIAN KONTROL ................................ ................................ .......... 154
A. Merancang Rangkaian Logika ................................ .............................. 154
B. Penyederhanaan Persamaan Fungsi ................................ ................... 157
C. Minimisasi dengan diagram Karnaugh -Veitch (Diagram -KV) ................ 167
D. Analisa Hubungan Logika ................................ ................................ ..... 172
E. Deskripsi: ................................ ................................ ............................. 175

F. REALISASI RANGKAIAN LOGIKA DENGAN RANGKA IAN ELEKTRONIK ................................. ................................ ...................... 175
G. Output tri -state ................................ ................................ ...................... 176
4.1.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 180
4.1.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 181
4.2 Kegiatan Belajar 9: Realisasi Rangkaian Logika dengan Kontak Listrik 190
4.2.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 190
4.2.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 190

REALISASI RANGKAIAN LOGIKA DENGAN KONTAK LISTRIK ............. 190
A. Realisa si Fungsi Logika Dasar dengan kontak listrik ............................ 190
A.1 Fungsi Identity ................................ ................................ .................... 190
A.2 Fungsi NOT/negation (NOT Function) ................................ ............... 191
A.3 Fungsi AND/Conjunction (AND Function) ................................ ........... 192
A. 4 Fungsi OR/Disjunction (OR Function) ................................ ................. 193
A.5 Realisasi Fungsi NAND dengan kontak listrik ................................ ..... 194
A.6 Realisasi Fungsi NOR dengan kontak listrik ................................ ....... 195
A.7 Realis asi Fungsi EX -OR/Exclusive OR (Antivalence) dengan kontak listrik ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 196
A.8 Realisasi Fungsi EX -OR/Exclusive OR (Equivalence) dengan kontak listrik ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 197
B.1 Realisasi R angkaian Penyimpan/Pengunci, Dominan „OFF“ dengan Kontak Listrik ................................ ................................ ........................ 198
B.2 Realisasi Rangkaian Penyimpan/Pengunci, Dominan „ON“ dengan Kontak Listrik ................................ ................................ ........................ 199
C. Timer (Tunda Waktu) ................................ ................................ ........... 200
C.1 Timer Delay “ON“ ................................ ................................ ............... 200
C.2 Timer Delay “OFF“ ................................ ................................ ............. 201
C.3 Timer Delay “ON” dan “OFF“ ................................ .............................. 202
4.2.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 203
4.2.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 204
4.2.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 205
4.2.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 206
4.3.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 211
4.3.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 211

REALISASI RANGKAIAN LOGIKA DENGAN PNEUMA TIK ..................... 211
A. Realisasi Fungsi Logika Dasar dengan Pneumatik ............................... 211
A.1 Realisasi Fungsi YES (identity) dengan pneumatik : ........................... 211
A.2 Realisasi Fungsi NOT (Negation) dengan pneumatik : ....................... 212
A.3 Realisasi Fungsi AND (Conjunction) dengan pneumatik: .................... 213
A.4 Realisasi Fungsi OR (Disjunction) dengan pneumatik: ....................... 215
B. Realisasi Rangkaian Penyimpan dengan Pneumatik ............................ 216
B.1 Realisasi Rangkaian Pengunci Dominan OFF dengan Pneumatik ...... 216
B.2 Realisasi Rangkaian Pengunci Dominan ON dengan Pneumatik ....... 217
B.3 Realisasi Rangkaian Logika EX -OR Antivalence dengan Pneumatik .. 218
B.4 Realisasi Rangkaian Logika EX -OR Equivalence dengan Pneumatik . 219
B.5 Realisasi Rangkaian Logika NAND dengan Pneumatik ...................... 220
B.6 Realisasi Rangkaian Logika NOR dengan Pneumatik ........................ 221
C. Realisasi TIMER (TUNDA WAKTU) dengan pneumatik ....................... 222
C.1 Realisasi TIMER On -Delay dengan pneumatik ................................ ... 222
C.2 Real isasi TIMER (TUNDA WAKTU) Off -Delay dengan pneumatik ..... 223
C.3 Realisasi TIMER (TUNDA WAKTU) On -Off -Delay dengan pneumatik 224
4.3 .3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 225
4.3.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 226
3.1.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 227
3.1.7 Le mbar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 230

BAB V
SENSOR ................................ ................................ ................................ 231
5.1 Kegiatan Belajar 11: Sensor Bekerja dengan K ontak/Sentuhan .......... 231
5.1.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 231
5.1.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 231

SENSOR BEKERJA TANPA KONTAK/SENTUHAN ................................ . 231
A. Pengantar ................................ ................................ ............................. 231
A.1 Pentingnya Sensor ................................ ................................ ............. 231
A.2 Teknologi ................................ ................................ ............................ 238
A.3 Susunan kontak ................................ ................................ .................. 239
A.4 Identitas Kontak ................................ ................................ .................. 241
A.5 Contoh Rangkaian ................................ ................................ .............. 242
B. Limit switch (Sakelar batas/sakelar posisi) ................................ ........... 243
B.1 Prinsip operasi ................................ ................................ .................... 244
B.2 Operasi sebentar ................................ ................................ ................ 245
B.3 Operasi dipertahankan ................................ ................................ ....... 246
B.4 Kontak snap -action ................................ ................................ ............. 246
B.5 Kontak slow -break ................................ ................................ .............. 247
B.6 Susunan k ontak ................................ ................................ .................. 248
B.7 Rating elektrik ................................ ................................ ..................... 249
B.8 Sambungan beban ................................ ................................ ............. 249
B.9 Aktuator ................................ ................................ .............................. 250
B.10 Kontak Bouncing ................................ ................................ .............. 251
5.1.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 253
5.1.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 254
5.1.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 255
5.1.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 256
5.1.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 257
5.2 Kegiatan Belajar 12: Sensor Proksimiti Induktif ................................ ... 258
5.2.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 258
5.2.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 258

SENSOR PROKSIMITI INDUKTIF ................................ ............................ 258
C. Sensor Proksimiti ................................ ................................ ................. 258
C.1 Sensor Proximity Induktif ................................ ................................ .... 260
C.1.1 Teori Operasi ................................ ................................ .................. 260
C.1.1.1 Simbol ................................ ................................ .......................... 260
C.1.1.2 Kumparan elektromagnet dan target logam ................................ .. 260
C.1.1.3 Eddy current killed oscillator (ECKO) ................................ ............ 261
C.1.1.4 Tegangan operasi ................................ ................................ ........ 263
C.1.1.5 Piranti Arus Searah ................................ ................................ ...... 263
C.1.1.6 Konfigurasi Output ................................ ................................ ........ 263
C.1.1.7 Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC) ................................ 264
C.1.1.8 Sambungan Seri dan Paralel ................................ ........................ 265
C.1.1.9 Sensor Proksimiti Berpelindung ................................ .................... 266
C.1.1.10 Sensor Poksim iti tak Berpelindung ................................ ............. 267
C.1.1.11 Dudukan Beberapa Sensor ................................ ........................ 268
C.1.1.12 Target Standar ................................ ................................ ........... 269
C.1.1.13 Ukuran Target dan Faktor Koreksi ................................ .............. 269
C.1.1.14 Ketebalan Target ................................ ................................ ........ 270
C.1.1.15 Material Target ................................ ................................ ........... 271
C.1.1.16 Daerah Jarak Operasi ................................ ................................ 271
C.1.1.17 Karakteristik Respon ................................ ................................ .. 272
C.1.1.18 Kurva Respon ................................ ................................ ............ 273
C.1.1.19 Petunjuk Perakitan Sensor Bergerak ................................ .......... 274
C.1.2 Keluarga Sensor Proximity Induktif ................................ .................. 275
C.1.2.1 Kategori ................................ ................................ ........................ 275
C.1.2.2 Keperluan normal (silindris) ................................ .......................... 275
C.1.2.3 Keperluan normal bentuk persegi ................................ ................. 276
C.1.2.4 Optimali sasi untuk Input Solid State ................................ ............. 277
C.1.2.5 Kesibukan Ekstra ................................ ................................ ......... 277
C.1.2.6 Kondisi lingkungan ekstrim (IP68) ................................ ................ 278
C.1.2.7 AS -i ................................ ................................ .............................. 278
C.1.2.8 Output Analog ................................ ................................ .............. 279
C.1.2.9 Keuntungan dan Kerugian Sensor In duktif ................................ ... 280
C.1.2.10 Contoh Penggunaan Sensor Induktif ................................ .......... 281
C.2 Sensor Reedswitch ................................ ................................ ............ 281
C.2.1 Simbol ................................ ................................ ............................. 282
C.2.2 Cara kerja ................................ ................................ ....................... 283
C.2.3 Karakteristik listrik untuk sensor ................................ ...................... 284
C.2.4 Rekomendasi ................................ ................................ .................. 284
5.2.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 285
5.2.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 286
5.2.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 287
5.2.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 288
5.2.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 289
5.3 Kegiatan Belajar 13: Sensor Proksimiti Kapasitif ................................ . 290
5.3.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 290
5.3.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 290
C.3 Sensor Proximity Kapasitif ................................ ................................ .. 290
C.3.1 Teori Operasi ................................ ................................ .................. 291
C.3.1.1 Target Standar dan Konstanta Dielektrik ................................ ...... 292
C.3.1.2 Pengulangan titik -switching ................................ .......................... 294
C.3.1.3 Pendeteksian melalui penghalang ................................ ................ 294
C.3.1.4 Pelindung ................................ ................................ ..................... 295
C.3.1.5 Polusi ................................ ................................ ........................... 296
C.3.1.6 Keuntungan dan Kerugian Sensor Kapasitif ................................ . 296
C.3.1.7 Daerah Aplikasi Sensor Kapasitif ................................ ................. 297
C.3.2 Keluarga Sensor Proximity Kapasitif ................................ ............... 299
5.3.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 300
5.3.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 301
5.3.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 302
5.3.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 303
5.3.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 304
5.4 Kegiatan Belajar 14: Sensor Proksimiti Ultrasonik ............................... 305
5.4.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 305
5.4.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 305
C.4 Sensor Proximity Ultrasonik ................................ ............................... 305
C.4.1 Teori Operasi ................................ ................................ .................. 305
C.4.1.2 Piringan Piezoelektrik ................................ ................................ ... 306
C.4.1.3 Daerah Kabur/Buta/Gelap ................................ ............................ 307
C.4.1.4 Definisi Rentang ................................ ................................ ........... 307
C.4.1.5 Pola Radiasi ................................ ................................ ................. 308
C.4.1.6 Daerah Bebas ................................ ................................ .............. 309
C.4.1.7 Se nsor Paralel ................................ ................................ .............. 309
C.4.1.8 Saling Mengganggu ................................ ................................ ..... 310
C.4.1.9 Sensor Saling Berhadapan ................................ ........................... 310
C.4.1.10 Permukaan Berbentuk Datar Dan Tak Beraturan ....................... 311

TEKNIK KONTRO L
C.4.1.11 Pengaturan Sudut Kemiringan ................................ .................... 313
C.4.1.12 Cairan Dan Material Butiran Kasar ................................ ............. 314
C.4.1.13 Objek Lubang Bidik ................................ ................................ .... 315
C.4.1.14 Mode Operasi ................................ ................................ ............. 315
C.4.1.15 Pengaruh Lingkungan ................................ ................................ 317
C.4.1.16 Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Sensor Ultrasonik ........................... 318
C.4.2 Keluarga Sensor Proximity Ultrasonik ................................ ............. 318
C.4.2.1 Thru -beam ................................ ................................ .................... 319
C.4.2.2 Receiver Thru -beam ................................ ................................ ..... 319
C.4.2.3 Compact Range 0 ................................ ................................ ........ 320
C.4.2.4 Compact Range I ................................ ................................ ......... 321
C.4.2.5 Se nsor Ultrasonik Dapat Diprogram ................................ ............. 322
C.4.2.6 Sensor Ultrasonik Dan Sensor Optik ................................ ............ 32 3
5.4.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 324
5.4.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 325
5.4.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 326
5.4.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 327
5.4.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 328
5.5 Kegiatan Belajar 15: Sensor Photoelektrik ................................ .......... 329
5.5.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 329
5.5.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 329
D.1 Teori Operasi ................................ ................................ ..................... 330
D.1.1 Sinar Dimodulasi ................................ ................................ ............. 331
D.1.2 Ruang Jarak ................................ ................................ .................... 332
D.1.3 Keuntungan Lebih ................................ ................................ ........... 333
D.1.4 Daerah Pensakelaran ................................ ................................ ...... 334
D.1.5 Simbol ................................ ................................ ............................. 335
D.2 Teknik Scan ................................ ................................ ....................... 335
D.2.1 Thru -beam ................................ ................................ ...................... 336
D.2.1.1 Lebar Efektif Thru -beam ................................ ............................... 336
D.2.1.2 Aplikasi Khusus ................................ ................................ ............ 337
D.2.2 Scan reflektif atau retroreflektif ................................ ........................ 337
D.2.2.1 Sorot Efektif Scan Retroreflektif ................................ .................... 338
D.2.2.2 Reflektor ................................ ................................ ....................... 339
D.2.2.3 Hal -hal yang Harus Diperhatikan ................................ .................. 341
D.2.2.4 Scan Retroreflektif Dan Objek Berkilau ................................ ........ 342
D.2.2.5 Scan retroreflektif terpolarisasi ................................ ..................... 343
D.2. 3 Scan Diffuse ................................ ................................ .................... 344
D.2.3.1 Faktor Koreksi Scan Diffuse ................................ ......................... 344
D.2.3.2 Scan Diffuse dengan Background Suppression ............................ 346
D.2.3.3 Metode Sudut C ahaya ................................ ................................ .. 347
D.2.3.4 P engurangan Jarak ................................ ................................ ...... 348
D.2.3.5 Sorot ef ektif scan diffuse ................................ .............................. 349
D.3 Mode operasi ................................ ................................ ..................... 349
D.4 Fiber Optik (Serat Optik) ................................ ................................ .... 350
D.4.1 Aplikasi serat optik: ................................ ................................ ......... 353
D.4.2 Petunjuk Perakitan ................................ ................................ .......... 354
D.5 Laser ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 355
D.6 Keluarga Sensor Photoelektrik ................................ ........................... 356
D.7 Pengajaran (Teach -in) ................................ ................................ ........ 359
D.8 Sensor Fiber Optik ................................ ................................ ............. 361
D.9 Sensor Laser Diffuse Dengan Output Analog ................................ ..... 361
D.10 BERO warna ................................ ................................ .................... 361
D.10.1 BERO tanda warna ................................ ................................ ....... 362
D.10.2 BERO slot ................................ ................................ ..................... 362
5.5.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 364
5.5.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 365
5.5.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 367
5.5.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 368
5.5.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 369
5.6 Kegiatan Belajar 16: Sensor Optik Elektronik ................................ ...... 370
5.6.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 370
5.6.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 370
E. Sensor Optik Elektronik ................................ ................................ ........ 370
E.1 Deskripsi Fungsi ................................ ................................ ................. 371
E.2 Petunjuk Penggunaan ................................ ................................ ........ 371
E.3 Indikasi Pra –kesalahan ................................ ................................ ...... 372
E.4 Kemampuan Untuk Dapat Diulangi Lagi, Dapat Dihasilkan Lagi ......... 372
E.5 Aplikasi Dalam Bahaya Ledakan ................................ ........................ 372
E.6 Kriteria Pemilihan ................................ ................................ ............... 372
E.7 Faktor koreksi untuk kondisi lingkungan ................................ ............. 372
E.8 Faktor koreksi untu k bahan (pantulan) ................................ ............... 373
E.9 Perhitungan Cadangan Fungsi/ operasi minimum ............................... 374
E.10 Keuntungan Dan Kerugian Sensor Optik ................................ .......... 375
F. Aplikasi Sensor ................................ ................................ ..................... 376
5.6.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 392
5.6.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 393
5.6.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 394
5.6.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 395
5.6.7 Lembar Ke rja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 396
5.7 Kegiatan Belajar 17: Enkoder ................................ .............................. 397
5.7.1 Tujuan Pembelajaran ................................ ................................ ....... 397
5.7.2 Uraian Materi ................................ ................................ ................... 397
G. Encoder Sebagai Sensor Perpindahan Dan Pengukuran Sudut ........... 397
G.1 Konstruksi rotary encoder ................................ ................................ .. 398
G.2 Enkoder Inkremental dan Enkoder Absolut ................................ ........ 398
G.2.1 Enkoder Inkremental ................................ ................................ ....... 399
G.2.1.1 Deteksi Arah Rotasi ................................ ................................ ..... 399
G.2.1.2 Kecepatan maksimum yang diijinkan ................................ ........... 401
G.2.2 Enkoders Abs olut ................................ ................................ ............ 401
H. Power Suplai dan Sambungan Beban ................................ .................. 403
H.1 Interferensi elektromagnetik ................................ ............................... 403
H.2 Sistem tiga kawat (kasus normal) ................................ ....................... 403
H.3 Sistem dua kawat ................................ ................................ ............... 404
H.4 Se nsor NAMUR ................................ ................................ .................. 405
H.5 Sensor untuk catu daya AC ................................ ................................ 405
H.6 Sambungan Beban ................................ ................................ ............ 406
5.7.3 Rangkuman ................................ ................................ ..................... 409
5.7.4 Tugas ................................ ................................ ............................... 410
5.7.5 Tes Formatif ................................ ................................ ..................... 411
5.7.6 Lembar Jawaban Tes Formatif ................................ ......................... 412
5.7.7 Lembar Kerja Peserta Didik ................................ ............................. 413

BAB VI
PENERAPAN ................................ ................................ ......................... 414
6.1 Knowledge Skills ................................ ................................ ................. 414
6.2 Psikomotorik Skills ................................ ................................ ........... 414
Soal 1 : Pengisi Botol Obat ................................ ................................ ....... 414
Soal 2 : Mesin Stempel ................................ ................................ ............. 415
Soal 3 : Positioning Unit ................................ ................................ ............ 415
Soal 4 : Forming device for spectacle frames ................................ ........... 417
Soal 5 : Mesin Pembengkok Plat ................................ ............................. 419
6.3 Attitude Skillls ................................ ................................ ..................... 419
6.4 Produk/Benda Kerja Sesuai Kriteria Standar ................................ ....... 419

DAFTAR PUSTAKA ................................ ................................ ................ 420

DAFTAR TABEL
Halaman

Tabel 1.1 Tabel penggambaran urutan gerakan ................................ ......... 36
Tabel 1.2 Simbol -simbol dalam chart fungsi ................................ ................ 37
Tabel 1.3 Standar simbol gerakan ................................ .............................. 47
Tabel 1.4 Simbol -simbol elemen sinyal, garis sinyal dan operasi logika sesuai
VDI 3260 untuk penggambaran diagram pemind ahan -langkah .............. 48
Tabel 1.5 Kode warna tombol tekan dan lampu ................................ .......... 49
Tabel 1.6 Simbol -simbol fungsional (jenis -jenis energi) .............................. 49
Tabel 2.1 Tabel alokasi ................................ ................................ ............... 66
Tabel 2.2 Tabel kontrol IC 74190 ................................ .............................. 101
Tabel 2.3 Identifikasi huruf I/O kontrol ................................ ....................... 102
Tabel 2.4 Disposisi register berdasar format data ................................ ..... 103
Tabel 2.5 Kode Bilangan ................................ ................................ ........... 118
Tabel 2.6 Perbandingan Sistem Bilangan ................................ ................. 124
Tabel 2.7 Singkatan kode ASCII ................................ ............................... 143
Tabel 2.8 Kode ASCII ................................ ................................ .............. 144
Tabel 3.1 Aturan Aljabar Boolean ................................ ............................. 157
Tabel 3.2 Tabel Fungsi ................................ ................................ ............. 174
Tabel 3.3 Overview keluarga sakelar 178 ................................ ................. 178
Tabel 4.1 Ikhtisar sensor -sensor biner ................................ ...................... 237
Tabel 4.2 Perbandingan jenis -jenis sensor ................................ ............... 238
Tabel 4.3 Kondisi kontak ................................ ................................ ........... 259
Tabel 4.4 Ikhtisar sensor ................................ ................................ ........... 259
Tabel 4.5 Faktor koreksi se nsor proksimiti ................................ ................ 270
Tabel 4.6 Faktor koreksi berbagai material ................................ ............... 271
Tabel 4.7 Konstanta dielektrik suatu bahan ................................ .............. 293
Tabel 4.8 Pengaruh lingkungan pada sensor sonar ................................ .. 317
Tabel 4.9 Nilai setting sensitivitas dan frekuensi ................................ ....... 320
Tabel 4.10 Perbandingan sensor ultrasonik dan sensor optik (photosensor) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 323
Tabel 4.11 Jarak antar sensor yang diijinkan ................................ ............ 332
Tabel 4.12 Faktor koreksi scan diffuse ................................ ...................... 345
Tabel 4.13 Mode operasi dan status beban ................................ .............. 350
Tabel 4.14 Pe tunjuk pemilihan sensor thru -beam ................................ ..... 357
Tabel 4.15 Petunjuk pemilihan sensor retroreflektif ................................ ... 358
Tabel 4.16 Petunjuk pemilihan sens or diffuse ................................ ........... 358
Tabel 4.17 Petunjuk pemilihan sensor diffuse dengan background suppression ................................ ................................ .......................... 358
Tabel 4.18 Petunjuk pemilihan ................................ ................................ .. 363
Tabel 4.19 Aplikasi sensor ultrasonik ................................ ........................ 377
Tabel 4.20 Aplikasi sensor photoelektrik ................................ ................... 381
Tabel 4.21 Aplikasi sensor proksimiti ................................ ........................ 389
Tabel 4.22 Enkoder ................................ ................................ .................. 392






















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TEKNIK KONTRO L

DAFTAR GAMBAR
Halaman
Gambar 1.1 Sistem teknik pada umumnya ................................ .......... 7
Gambar 1.2 Blok diagram kontrol loop -terbuka ................................ ... 8
Gambar 1.3 Urutan aksi kontrol open loop ................................ .......... 9
Gambar 1.4 Kontrol loop -terbuka ( open loop ) pada tekanan udara .. 10
Gambar 1.5 Sistem Teknik Pres Hidrolik ................................ ........... 11
Gambar 1.6 Rantai Kontrol ................................ ................................ 12
Gambar 1.7 Kon trol Pintu (Sketsa Sistem) ................................ ........ 13
Gambar 1.8 Urutan aksi kontrol closed loop ................................ ...... 14
Gambar 1.9 Contoh sistem dengan kontrol otomatis ( close loop ) ..... 15
Gambar 1.10 Proses kontrol otomatis (close loop) ............................ 16
Gambar 1.11 Kontrol Tekanan (open loop) ................................ ....... 16
Gambar 1.12 Kontrol Otomatis Tekanan (close loop) ....................... 17
Gambar 1.13 Sinyal analog ................................ ............................... 18
Gamb ar 1.14 Penunjuk analog ................................ .......................... 18
Gambar 1.15 Gambar sinyal diskrit ................................ ................... 19
Gambar 1.16 Sinyal digital ................................ ................................ 19
Gambar 1.17 Displai digital ................................ ............................... 19
Gambar 1.18 Sinyal biner ................................ ................................ .. 20
Gambar 1.19 Daerah nila i dari sinyal biner ................................ ....... 20
Gambar 1.20 Penandaan sinyal biner ................................ ............... 21
Gambar 1.24 Pembagian kontrol menurut DIN 19226 ...................... 25
Gambar 1.25 Kontrol waktu ................................ ............................... 26
Gambar 1.26 Kontrol berurutan ................................ ......................... 27
Gambar 1.27 Kontrol hubungan logika ................................ .............. 27
Gambar 1.28 Pembedaan berdasar Pemr ograman .......................... 28
Gambar 1.29 Tata letak mesin pemindah paket ................................ 35
Gambar 1.30 Contoh chart fungsi sederhana ................................ .... 40
Gambar 1.31 Chart fungsi gerakan mesin pemindah paket A+, B+, A -,
B- ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 41



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TEKNIK KONTROL


Gambar 1.32 Diagram pemindahan -langkah ................................ ..... 43
Gambar 1.33 Diagram pemindahan -langkah mesin pemindah paket 43
Gambar 1.34 Diagram pe mindahan -waktu mesin pemindah paket ... 44
Gambar 1.35 Diagram kontrol ................................ ........................... 45
Gambar 1.36 Diagram fungsi ................................ ............................ 46
Gambar 1.3 7 Tampilan Software FluidSim ................................ ........ 56
Gambar 1.3 8 Tampilan Software CIROS® Automation Su ite ........... 56
Gambar 1.3 9 Tampilan Software Visualisasi InTouch ....................... 57
Gambar 2.1 Be ntuk -bentuk Sinyal ................................ ..................... 64
Gambar 2.2 Batasan Nilai ................................ ................................ . 65
Gambar 2.3 Simbol hubungan logika ................................ ................ 66
Gambar 2.4 Pres Pneumatik ................................ ............................. 67
Gambar 2.5 Fungsi AND ................................ ................................ ... 68
Gambar 2.6 Diagram lintasan ar us logika AND ................................ . 69
Gambar 2.7 Fungsi OR ................................ ................................ ..... 69
Gambar 2.8 Diagram Lintasan Arus Logika OR ................................ 70
Gambar 2.9 Pres dengan tirai cahaya ................................ ............... 71
Gambar 2.10 Fungsi NOT ................................ ................................ . 71
Gambar 2.11 Diagram Lintasan Arus Logika NOT ............................ 72
Gambar 2.12 Fungsi NAND ................................ ............................... 72
Gambar 2.13 Fungsi EX -OR atau Antivalence ................................ .. 73
Gambar 2.14 Fungsi EQUIVALENCE (EX -NOR) .............................. 74
Gambar 2.15 Kontrol Pintu ................................ ................................ 75
Gambar 2.16 Fungsi Penyimpan ................................ ....................... 84
Gambar 2.17 Multivibrator Bistabil (RS -FF) ................................ ....... 85
Gambar 2.18 Jenis RS -Memori ................................ ......................... 86
Gambar 2.19 D -Flip -Flop ................................ ................................ ... 87
Gambar 2.20 JK Flip -Flop ................................ ................................ . 88
Gambar 2.21 JK -MS -Flip -Flop ................................ ........................... 89
Gambar 2.22 JK -MS -Flip -Flop dengan Input Statis ........................... 90
Gambar 2.23 Displai counter ................................ ............................. 97




xxiii

TEKNIK KONTRO L

Gambar 2.24 Counter Asinkron ................................ ......................... 98
Gambar 2.25 Counter -down Modulo -8 ................................ .............. 99
Gambar 2.26 Counter Sinkron ................................ ......................... 100
Gambar 2.27 Blok Diagram IC 74190 ................................ ............. 101
Gambar 2.28 Counter -step 3 blok, penggambaran sederhana ....... 102
Gambar 2.29 Register Geser (SR) 3 -Bit ................................ .......... 104
Gambar 2.30 Diagram Pulsa Register Geser (SR) 3 -Bit ................. 105
Gambar 2.31 Masukan informasi 101 ................................ ............. 105
Gambar 2.32 Shift -register 8 -bit dengan input dan output serial, IC
7491 ................................ ................................ ............................ 106
Gambar 2.33 Pengubah Serial -Paralel 3 -bit ................................ .... 107
Gambar 2.34 Register memori 3 -bit ................................ ................ 108
Gambar 2.35 IC 74194 Shift -register bi -direksional denga n paralel
data input dan output ................................ ................................ ... 109
Gambar 2.36 Multivibrator monostabil ................................ ............. 111
Gambar 2.37 Multivibrator A -stabil: Karakteristik Pensakelaran ...... 112
Gambar 2.38 Schmitt Trigger: Karakteristik Pensakelaran .............. 112
Gambar 2.39 Be rbagai IC ................................ ................................ 145
Gambar 2.40 Converter Sinyal ................................ ........................ 146
Gambar 2.41 AD -Converter 3 -Bit ................................ .................... 147
Gambar 2.42 AD -Converter sebuah tegangan AC. MSB adalah bit
terdepan ................................ ................................ ...................... 148
Gambar 2.43 DA -Converter sebuah data -kata dalam tegangan AC
berbentuk sinus ................................ ................................ ........... 148
Gambar 3.1 Desain Sirkit: a) Diagram pulsa; b) Tabel fungsi; dan c)
Hubungan ................................ ................................ .................... 156
Gambar 3.2 Penyederhanaan hubungan logika .............................. 159
Gambar 3.3 Bidang dari panel KV ................................ ................... 167
Gambar 3.4 Posisi baris dalam panel KV ................................ ........ 167
Gambar 3.5 Pe nyederhanaan dengan panel KV ............................. 168
Gambar 3.6 Cara kerja mesin sortir ................................ ................ 169
Gambar 3.7 Penyederhanaan ................................ ......................... 170
Gambar 3.8 Sistem tangki ................................ ............................... 171



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TEKNIK KONTROL


Gambar 3.9 Penyederhanaan ................................ ......................... 172
Gambar 3.10 Hubungan logika ................................ ........................ 173
Gambar 3.11 Blok Tri -State ................................ ............................. 175
Gambar 3.12 Input tak terpakai ................................ ....................... 176
Gambar 3.13 Wired -AND ................................ ................................ 177
Gambar 3.14 Ar us sebagai fungsi dari sinyal keluaran ................... 178
Gambar 4.1 Deteksi Posisi sistem conveyor -overhead dengan sensor
................................ ................................ ................................ .... 232
Ga mbar 4.2 Ilustrasi fungsi sensor ................................ .................. 232
Gambar 4.3 Konversi besaran ukur ................................ ................. 233
Gambar 4.4 Akuisisi data ................................ ................................ 234
Gambar 4.5 Transduser ................................ ................................ .. 234
Gambar 4.6 Sensor pasif, strain gauge ................................ ........... 235
Gambar 4.7 Sensor akt if, thermocouple ................................ .......... 235
Gambar 4.8 Konstruksi sensor ................................ ........................ 236
Gambar 4.9 Berbagai jenis sensor ................................ .................. 238

Gambar 4.10 Jenis -jenis kontak ................................ ...................... 240
Gambar 4.11 Limit switch dengan berbagai jenis kontak, diaktuasi
secara mekanik ................................ ................................ ........... 240
Gambar 4.12 Nomor i dentitas kontak tunggal ................................ . 241
Gambar 4.13 Nomor identitas kontak banyak pole .......................... 242
Gambar 4.14 Rangkaian kontrol dengan limit switch mekanis ........ 243
Gambar 4.15 Limit switch dengan variasi aktuator .......................... 244
Gambar 4.16 Bagian -bagian limit switch ................................ ......... 244
Gambar 4.17 Beberapa posisi dalam limit switch ............................ 245
Gambar 4.18 Operasi sebentar dalam limit switch .......................... 245
Gambar 4.19 Opera si dipertahankan dalam limit switch ................. 246
Gambar 4.20 Kontak snap -action ................................ .................... 247
Gambar 4.21 Kontak slow -break ................................ ..................... 247
Gambar 4.22 Simbol limit switch versi Amerika Utara dan
Internasional ................................ ................................ ................ 249




xxv

TEKNIK KONTRO L

Gambar 4.23 Sambungan ke beban ................................ ............... 250
Gambar 4.24 Berbagai jenis aktuator ................................ .............. 250
Gambar 4.25 Aktuator jenis plunger dan posisi CAM ...................... 251
Gambar 4.26 Kontak -bouncing ................................ ........................ 252
Gambar 4.27 Contoh aplikasi sensor proksimiti .............................. 259
Gambar 4.28 Sensor proksimiti induktif ................................ ........... 260
Gambar 4.29 Cara deteksi sensor proksimiti i