Buku Teknik Mesin Industri Jilid 3 Kelas 12 SMK

Buku Teknik Mesin Industri Jilid 3 Kelas 12 SMK


Kelas 12
Pengarang Drs. Sunyoto
Penerbit Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
Tahun 2008
Bagikan kepada teman anda.

Materi Teknik Mesin Industri Jilid 3

JILID 1

BAB 1 DASAR KEJURUAN................................................................ 1
A. Dasar ilmu statiska ........................................................................... 1
A.1. Tegangan tarik dan tekan. ................................................. 1
A.2. Rasio poison ...................................................................... 2
A.3. Tegangan Geser ................................................................ 2
A.4. Tegangan Bending ............................................................ 2
A.5. Tegangan Maksimum ....................................................... 3
A.7. Torsi ................................................................................... 3
B. Mengenal Elemen Mesin .................................................................. 4
B.1. Rem ................................................................................... 5
B.2. Roda gigi............................................................................ 5
B.3. Bantalan............................................................................. 7
B.4. Pegas................................................................................. 8
B.5. Poros ................................................................................. 10
B.6.Transmisi ........................................................................... 11
C. Mengenal material dan kemampuan proses .................................... 14
C.1. Besi cor.............................................................................. 14
C.2. Baja karbon ....................................................................... 16
C.3. Material non logam ............................................................ 17

BAB 2 MEMAHAMI PROSES–PROSES DASAR KEJURUAN.......... 19
A. Mengenal Proses Pengecoran Logam ............................................. 19
B. Mengenal Proses Pembentukan Logam .......................................... 21
B.1. Pembentukan plat ............................................................. 21
B.2. Kerja bangku...................................................................... 21
C. Proses Mesin Perkakas ................................................................... 24
C.1. Mesin bubut ....................................................................... 24
C.2. Mesin fris ........................................................................... 26
D. MENGENAL PROSES MESIN KONVERSI ENERGI ..................... 27
D.1. Termodinamika .................................................................. 27
D.2. Bentuk-bentuk energi
D.3. Sifat energi ........................................................................ 33
D.4. Hukum termodinamika ....................................................... 38
D.5. Gas Ideal ............................................................................ 43
E. Dasar Fluida...................................................................................... 46
E.1. Massa jenis ....................................................................... 46
E.2. Tekanan ............................................................................. 46
E.3. Kemampumampatan .......................................................... 48
E.4. Viskositas .......................................................................... 49
E.5. Aliran fluida dalam pipa dan saluran .................................. 50
E.6. Kondisi aliran fluida cair ..................................................... 54
F. Perpindahan Panas........................................................................... 55
F.1. Konduksi ............................................................................. 55
F.2. Konveksi ............................................................................. 55
F.3. Radiasi................................................................................ 56
G. Bahan Bakar ..................................................................................... 57
G.1. Penggolongan bahan baker ............................................... 58
G.2. Bahan-bakar cair................................................................ 59
G.3. Bahan bakar padat............................................................. 64

BAB 3 MEREALISASIKAN KERJA AMAN BAGI MANUSIA, ALAT
DAN LINGKUNGAN.................................................................. 66
A. Keselamatan dan Kesehatan Kerja ................................................. 66
A.1. Pendahuluan ...................................................................... 66
A.2. Peraturan Perundangan K3................................................ 66
A.3. Prosedur Penerapan K3 ..................................................... 68
A 4. Penerapan K3 Bidang Pesawat Uap dan Bejana Tekan.... 70
A.5. Kebakaran dan Penanganannya ........................................ 72
A.6. Kesehatan Kerja dan Lingkungan ...................................... 74

BAB 4 MENGGAMBAR TEKNIK......................................................... 77
A. Alat Gambar ..................................................................................... 77
A.1. Kertas gambar ................................................................... 77
B. Kop Gambar ..................................................................................... 82
C. Gambar Proyeksi ............................................................................. 83
D. Skala ................................................................................................ 89
E. Ukuran dan Toleransi ....................................................................... 90
F. Penyederhanaan gambar ................................................................. 92
G. Lambang Pengerjaan....................................................................... 93

BAB 5 DASAR POMPA....................................................................... 97
A. Prinsip Kerja Pompa......................................................................... 98
B. Klasifikasi Pompa ............................................................................. 99
C. Komponen-Komponen Pompa ........................................................ 104
D. Konstruksi Pompa Khusus ............................................................... 106
D.1. Pompa sembur ( jet pump) ............................................... 106
D.2. Pompa viscous ................................................................. 107
D.3. Pompa dengan volute ganda............................................ 108
D.4. Pompa CHOPPER ........................................................... 110
D.5. Pompa dengan Reccesed Impeller .................................. 110
D.6. Pompa lumpur (slurry) ...................................................... 111
D.7. Pompa LFH (Low Flow High Head ) ................................. 112

BAB 6 PERFORMANSI POMPA SENTRIFUGAL............................... 113
A. Kecepatan Spesifik........................................................................... 113
B. Kurva Karakteristik ........................................................................... 115
C. Head (Tinggi Tekan) ........................................................................ 117
C.1. Head statis total ................................................................. 117
C.2. Head Kerugian (Loss)........................................................ 120
C.3. Head Hisap Positip Neto NPSH ........................................ 125
C.4. Hal yang mempengaruhi NPSH yang tersedia .................. 128
C.5. Putaran dan jenis pompa................................................... 129
D. Kerja, Daya dan Efisiensi Pompa..................................................... 129
D.1. Definisi ............................................................................... 130
E. Pemilihan Pompa .............................................................................. 132
E.1. Kapasitas............................................................................ 133
E.2. Grafik kerja berguna ........................................................... 133
E.3. Hal yang mempengaruhi efisiensi pompa .......................... 133
F. Kavitasi.............................................................................................. 134
F.1. Tekanan uap zat cair .......................................................... 134
F.2. Proses kavitasi ................................................................... 134
F.3. Pencegahan kavitasi .......................................................... 135
G. Pemilihan Penggerak Mula............................................................... 137
G.1. Roda gigi transmisi ............................................................ 140
G.2. Pompa dengan penggerak turbin angin ............................. 141
H. Kurva Head Kapasitas Pompa dan Sistem....................................... 142
I. Operasi Pompa pada Kapasitas tidak Normal ................................... 144
I.1. Operasi dengan kapasitas tidak penuh ............................... 145
I.2. Operasi dengan kapasitas melebihi normal......................... 146
J. Kontrol Kapasitas Aliran .................................................................... 146
J.1. Pengaturan katup................................................................ 147
J.2. Pengaturan putaran ............................................................ 148
J.3. Pengaturan sudut sudu impeler .......................................... 148
J.4. Pengaturan jumlah pompa .................................................. 150

BAB 7 GANGGUAN OPERASI POMPA.............................................. 154
A. Benturan Air (Water Hammer) .......................................................... 154
A.1. Kerusakan akibat benturan air ........................................... 155
A.2. Pencegahan benturan air ................................................... 155
B. Gejala Surjing ................................................................................... 156
C. Tekanan Berubah-ubah .................................................................... 157

JILID 2
BAB 8 POMPA PERPINDAHAN POSITIF........................................ 159
A. Klasifikasi Pompa Perpindahan Positif ............................................. 159
B. Penggunaan ..................................................................................... 162
C. Pompa Gerak Bolak balik................................................................. 162
C.1.Cara kerja pemompaan ...................................................... 162
C.2. Pemakaian......................................................................... 163
C.3. Kerkurangan pompa bolak-balik ........................................ 164
C.4. Komponen pompa gerak bolak-balik ................................. 164
C.5. Pompa daya ...................................................................... 165
C.6. Pompa aksi langsung ........................................................ 168
D. Pompa Rotari ................................................................................... 170
D.1. Pompa roda gigi ................................................................ 170
D.2. Lobe, Skrup, vanes, flexibel tube , radial axial,
plunger dan circumferential pump. .................................... 171

BAB 9 DASAR KOMPRESOR............................................................. 180
A. Prinsip Kerja Kompresor ................................................................. 180
B. Klasifikasi Kompresor ....................................................................... 183
C. Penggunaan Udara Mampat ............................................................ 188
D. Dasar Termodinamika Kompresi...................................................... 189
D.1. Proses Kompresi ............................................................... 189
D.2. Temperatur Kompresi, Perbandingan Tekanan dan Kerja 192
E. Efisiensi Kompresor ......................................................................... 194
E.1. Efisiensi laju kerja adiabatik kompresor............................. 194
E.2. Efisiensi volumetrik ............................................................ 198
F. Jenis Penggerak dan Spesifikasi Kompresor ................................... 199
G. Konstruksi Kompresor Perpindahan positif ...................................... 202
G.1. Konstruksi kompresor torak............................................... 202
G.2. Konstruksi kompresor sekrupKompresor
sekrup injeksi minyak ......................................................... 211
G.3. Konstruksi kompresor sudu luncur..................................... 215
G.4. Konstruksi kompresor jenis roots ...................................... 218
H. Konstruksi Kompresor Rotari Aksial dan Radial ............................... 219
I. Gangguan Kerja Kompresor dan Cara Mengatasinya ...................... 222
I.1. Pembebanan lebih dan pemanasan lebih
pada motor pengerak........................................................ 222
I.2. Pemanasan lebih pada udara hisap ................................... 222
I.3. Katup pengaman yang sering terbuka ................................ 223
I.4. Bunyi dan getaran ............................................................... 223
I.5. Korosi .................................................................................. 224

BAB 10 DASAR MOTOR BAKAR
A. Sejarah Motor Bakar ......................................................................... 230
B. Siklus 4 Langkah dan 2 Langkah ...................................................... 237
B.1. Siklus 4 langkah ................................................................. 237
B.2. Siklus 2 langkah ................................................................. 238
C. Daftar Istilah-Istilah Pada Motor Bakar ............................................. 240

BAB 11 SIKLUS MOTOR BAKAR ....................................................... 245
A. Siklus Termodinamika Motor Bakar .................................................. 245
A.1. Siklus udara ideal ............................................................... 245
A.2. Siklus aktual ....................................................................... 250
B. Menghitung Efiseinsi Siklus Udara Ideal........................................... 251
B.1. Efesiensi dari siklus Otto .................................................... 252
B.2. Efisiensi siklus tekanan konstan......................................... 254

BAB 12 PRESTASI MESIN .................................................................. 256
A. Propertis Geometri Silinder ............................................................... 258
A.1. Volume langkah dan volume ruang baker .......................... 261
A.2. Perbandingan kompresi ( compression ratio)..................... 261
A.3. Kecepatan piston rata-rata............................................................. 262
B. Torsi dan Daya Mesin ....................................................................... 262
C. Perhitungan Daya Mesin .................................................................. 264
C.1. Daya indikator .................................................................... 265
C.2. Daya poros atau daya efektif ............................................. 279
C.3. Kerugian daya gesek ........................................................ 279
D. Efisiensi Mesin ................................................................................. 279
D.1. Efisiensi termal .................................................................. 280
D.2. Efisiensi termal indikator.................................................... 280
D.3. Efisiensi termal efektif........................................................ 281
D.4. Efisiensi mekanik ............................................................... 281
D.5. Efisiensi volumetric ............................................................ 282
E. Laju pemakaian bahan bakar spesifik ............................................. 283
F. Perhitungan performasi motor bakar torak ....................................... 283

BAB 13 KOMPONEN MESIN .............................................................. 289
A. Mesin Motor Bakar ........................................................................... 289
B. Bagian Mesin.................................................................................... 289
B.1. Blok silinder ....................................................................... 290
B.1.1. Silinder ............................................................................ 292
B.2. Kepala silinder ................................................................... 295
B.2.1. Bentuk ruang bakar ........................................................ 295
B.3. Piston atau torak ................................................................ 296
B.4. Batang torak ..................................................................... 300
B.5. Poros engkol ...................................................................... 301
B.6. Roda gaya ........................................................................ 302
B.7. Bantalan............................................................................. 302
B.8. Mekanik Katup ................................................................... 303

BAB 14 KELENGKAPAN MESIN ........................................................ 304
A Sistim Pelumasan ............................................................................ 304
A.1.Minyak pelumas .................................................................. 305
A.2.Model pelumasan ............................................................... 308
A.3.Bagian-bagian utama pada
sistim pelumasan tekan...................................................... 311
A.4. Sistim ventilasi karter ......................................................... 313
A.5. Saringan minyak pelumas ................................................. 313
A.6.Tangkai pengukur minyak................................................... 314
B. Sistim Pendinginan .......................................................................... 315
B.1. Pendinginan air .................................................................. 315
B.2. Pendingin udara ................................................................. 320

JILID 3
BAB 15 TURBIN
B. Asas Impuls dan Reaksi ................................................................... 322
C. Segitiga Kecepatan........................................................................... 324
D. Turbin Impuls .................................................................................... 327
D.1. Turbin impuls satu tahap ( Turbin De Laval) ...................... 330
D.2. Turbin impuls gabungan..................................................... 332
E. Turbin Reaksi .................................................................................... 336

BAB 16 TURBIN GAS ..........................................................................340
A. Sejarah Perkembangan .................................................................... 342
B. Dasar Kerja Turbin Gas .................................................................... 344
B.1. Bahan bakar turbin gas ...................................................... 346
B.2. Proses pembakaran ........................................................... 347

BAB 17 SIKLUS TERMODINAMIKA ................................................... 351
A. Klasifikasi Turbin Gas ....................................................................... 352
A.1 Turbin gas sistem terbuka
( langsung dan tidak langsung) .......................................... 352
A.2. Turbin gas sistem tertutup
( langsung dan tidak langsung) .......................................... 355
A.3. Turbin gas dua poros terpisah............................................ 357
A.4. Turbin gas dua poros terpusat ........................................... 358
B. Efisiensi Turbin Gas .......................................................................... 359
C. Modifikasi Turbin Gas ....................................................................... 364
C.1. Turbin gas dengan regenerator.......................................... 364
C.2. Turbin gas dengan pendingin sela (intercooler) ................. 366
C.3. Intercooler, Reheater, dan Regenerato.............................. 368

BAB 18 KONTRUKSI TURBIN GAS .................................................... 370
A. Rotor ................................................................................................. 374
B. Ruang Bakar .................................................................................... 375
C. Kompresor........................................................................................ 377
D. Turbin ............................................................................................... 380
E. Aplikasi Turbin Gas ......................................................................... 381

BAB 19 MESIN TENAGA UAP ............................................................ 383
A. Siklus Termodinamika Mesin Uap .................................................... 384
B. Siklus Aktual dari Siklus Rankine ..................................................... 385
C. Peralatan Sistem Tenaga Uap ......................................................... 386
C.1. Boiler 386
C.2. Turbin Uap ......................................................................... 391
C.3. Kondensor ........................................................................ 394
D. Ekonomiser ...................................................................................... 395
E. Superheater...................................................................................... 396
F. Burner ............................................................................................... 397
F.1.Burner untuk bahan bakar cair .............................................. 398
F.2. Burner dengan bahan-bakar gas ............................................ 399
F.3. Burner untuk bakar padat. ...................................................... 401

BAB 20 PRINSIP DASAR ALIRAN ..................................................... 405
A. Sejarah Turbin Air ............................................................................ 408
B. Instalasi Pembangkit Tenaga Air...................................................... 411
C. Energi Potensial Aliran Air ............................................................... 414
C.1. Head air.................................................................................. 415
D. Prinsip Peralian Energi Aliran .......................................................... 416
E. Daya Turbin ...................................................................................... 417
F. Kecepatan Putar Turbin dan Kecepatan Spesifik ............................. 419
G. Perhitungan Performasi Turbin ........................................................ 420

BAB 21 KLASIFIKASI TURBIN AIR ....................................................423
A. Turbin Impuls atau Turbin Tekanan Sama........................................ 424
A.1. Turbin pelton ...................................................................... 424
A.2. Turbin aliran ossberger ...................................................... 428
B. Turbin Reaksi atau Turbin Tekan Lebih ............................................ 429
B.1. Turbin Francis413 .............................................................. 429
B.2. Turbin Kaplan ..................................................................... 430
C. Perbandingan Karakteristik Turbin ................................................... 432

BAB 22 DASAR REFRIGERASI DAN
PENGKONDISIAN UDARA ..................................................... 434
A. Klasifikasi Mesin Refrigerasi ............................................................. 434
B. Penggunaan...................................................................................... 435
B.1. Pengkondisian udara untuk industri ................................... 435
B.2. Pengkondisian udara untuk Laboratorium.......................... 436
B.3. Pengkondisian udara Ruang Komputer ............................. 436
B.4. Instalasi penkondisian udara pada
Instalasi power plant ........................................................... 436
B.5. Pengkondisian udara pada rumah tangga ......................... 436
B.6. Pengkondisian udara untuk Automobil ............................... 437
B.7. Penyimpanan dan pendistribusian ..................................... 437
C. Sistem Pengkondisian Udara ........................................................... 438
D. Peralatan Pengkondisian udara........................................................ 439
E. Beban Pemanasan dan Pendinginan .............................................. 440
F. Kualitas udara ................................................................................... 444

BAB 23 SIKLUS KOMPRESI UAP....................................................... 446
A. Prinsip Kerja...................................................................................... 446
B. Daur Refrigerasi Kompresi Uap ........................................................ 448
C. Peralatan Utama Sistem Refrigerasi Kompresi Uap......................... 452
D. Refrigeran ......................................................................................... 454
E. Perhitungan Koefisien Unjuk Kerja .................................................. 455
F. Heat pump atau Pompa Kalor .......................................................... 458
G. Refrigerasi Absorbsi ......................................................................... 459